Lesson 2 Thinking like a Scientist

Term Definition
Skepticism having an attitude of doubt
Ethics refers to the rules that enable people to know right from wrong
Personal Bias comes from a person's likes and dislikes
Clutural Bias stems form the culture in which a person grows up
Experimental Bias is a mistake in the design of an experiment that makes a particular result more likely
Objective means that you make decisions and draw conclusions based on a bailable evidence.
Subjective that personal feelings have entered into a decision or conclusion
Deductive Reasoning is a way to explain things by starting with a general idea and then applying the idea to a specific observation
Inductive Reasoning uses specific observations to make generalizations

Lesson 3 Scientific Inquiry

Term Definition
Scientific Inquiry to the diverse ways in which scientists study the natural world and propose explanations based on the evidence they gather
Hypothesis is a possible answer to a scientific question
Variable factors that can change in an experiment
Manipulated Variable (independent) the one variable that is purposely changed to test a hypothesis
Responding Variable (dependent) that factor that may change in response to the manipulated faviaable
Controlled Experiment an experiment in which only one variable is manipulated at a time
Data the facts, figures, and other evidence gathered through qualitative and quantitative observations
Scientific Theory is a well-tested explanation for a wide range of observations and experimental results
Scientific Law is a statement that describes what scientists expect to happen every time under a particular set of conditions


Term Definition
Renewable resources Natural Resources replaced in a relatively short time.
Nonrenewable resources Natural Resources that are not replaced as they are used. OR un replaceable natural resources.
Population Growth The increased rate of the human race
Pollution A negative effect on living organisms.
Environmental Science The study of the natural processes that occur in the environment and how humans can affect them
Development viewpoint The belief that humans should be able to freely use and benefit from all of earths resources
preservation viewpoint The belief that all parts of the environment are equally important no matter how useful they are to humans
Conservation viewpoint The belief that people should use resources from the environment as long as they do not destroy those resources
Environmental decisions are made to what? To help balance these different opinions, decision makers weigh the costs and benefits of a proposal
Clear cutting the process of cutting down all the trees in an area at once
Selective cutting Cutting down only some trees in a forest and leaving a mix of tree sixes and species behind
Sustainable Yield A regular amount of a renewable resource such as trees that can be harvested without reducing the future supply.
Factors of affecting biodiversity area, climate, and diversity of niches
keystone species A species that influences the survival of many other species in an ecosystem
Causes of extinction habitat destruction, poaching, pollution, and introduction to exotic species
Poaching The illegal removal or killing of wildlife species
Taxol A chemical that protects the Pacific yew tree

Lesson 2 Scientific Literacy

Term Definition
Scientific Literacy understanding scientific terms and principles well enough to ask questions, evaluate information, and make decisions
Evidence includes observations and conclusions that have been repeated
Opinion is an idea that may be formed from evidence but has not been confirmed by evidence.

Lesson 4 Careers in Science

Term Definition
Life Science the study of living things, including plants, animals, and microscopic life forms
Earth and Space Science the study of Earth and its place in the universe
Physical Science the study of energy, motion, sound, light, electricity, and matter that makes up all things

Lesson 1 Measurement-A Comon Language

Term Definition
Metric System is a measurement system based on the number 10
SI modern scientists use a version of the metric system called the International System of Units
Mass is a measure of the amount of matter in an object
Weight is a measure of the force of gravity acting on an object
Volume is the amount of space an object or substance takes up
Meniscus the bottom of the curve
Density is measure of how much mass is contained in a given volume

Lesson 2 Mathematics and Science

Term Definition
Estimate is an approximation of a number based on reasonable assumptions
Accuracy refers to how close a measurement is to the true or accepted value
Precision refers to how close a group of measurements are to each other
Significant Figures in a measurement include all digits measured exactly, plus one estimated digit
Percent Error a calculation used to determine how accurate, or close to the true value, an experimental value really is.
Mean is the numerical average of a set of data
Median is the middle number in a set of data
Mode is the number that appears most often in a list of numbers
Range of a set of data is the difference between the greatest value and the least value in the set
Anomaious Data data that does not fit with the rest of a data set

Atoms and the Periodic Table

Term Definition
Atom The smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of that element.
Electron A subatomic particle that has a negative charge.
Nucleus In physical science, an atom's central region, which is made up of protons and neutrons.
Proton A subatomic particle that has a positive charge and that is located in the nucleus of am atom; the number of protons in the nucleus it the atomic number, which determines the identity of the element.
Neutron A subatomic particle that has no charge and that is located in the nucleus of an atom.
Electron Cloud A region around the nucleus of an atom where electrons are likely to be found.
Atomic Number The number of protons in the nucleus of an toms: the atomic number is the same for all the atoms of an element.
Mass Number The sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.
Periodic Table An arrangement of the elements in order of their atomic number such that elements with similar properties fall in the same column or group.
Chemical Symbol A one-, two-, or three-letter abbreviation of the name of an element.
Average Atomic Mass The weighted average of the masses of all naturally occurring isotopes of an element.
Metal An element that is shiny and conducts heat and electricity well.
Nonmetal An element that conducts heat and electricity poorly.
Metalloid An element that has properties of both metals and non metals.
Group A vertical column of elements in the periodic table; elements in a group share the same chemical properties.
Period In chemistry, a horizontal row of elements in the periodic table.

Lesson 4 Models as Tools in Science

Term Definition
Model any representation of an object or process
System is a group of parts that work together to perform a function or produce a result
Input the material or energy that goes into a system
Process what happens in a system
Output is the material or energy that comes out of a system
Feedback is output that changes the system in some way