*WAHS TAKS Science: Earth & Elements

Question Answer
Matter states of energy on earth, including solid, liquid, and gas
Fluids matter that flows, takes the shape of its container
Viscosity a fluid’s resistance to flow; high
Buoyancy the ability of a fluid to exert an upward force on an object immersed in it
Density the mass per unit volume; depends on temperature, warmer
Permeability the rate of flow of a liquid or gas through a porous material
Infiltration (water) the process of water entering the soil
Pressure force exerted per unit area; related to particles and their motion; warmer means more pressure
Mass the amount of matter in an object
Volume the amount of space occupied by an object
Polarity the imbalance of charges in a molecule
Ions a charged particle with an imbalance between electrons and protons
Base a substance that forms hydroxide ions in a water solution; slippery, cleansers
Acid a substance that produces hydrogen ions in a water solution; sour, corrosive
Acidity how well or poorly a compound ionizes (separates into ions) when dissolved in water
Element pure chemical substances
Bonding when elements share electrons to form compounds
Compounds when two or more elements combine chemically
Mixtures material made up of two or more pure substances
Single-Displacement Reaction when an element or ion moves out of one compound and into another
Ion Concentration the number of ions present when an ionic compound dissolves in water, it dissociates, and ions form
pH levels the measure of hydronium ions in a solution, from 0 – 14, with 0 being highly acidic, and 14 being highly basic
Electrolytic Behavior compounds that break down into ions in water, and can conduct electricity
Chemical Stability a complete outer level of electrons (two or eight/octet)
Valence outer layer of electrons, determines chemical properties of an atom
Covalence the ability of an element to bond with other elements by sharing electrons across a bond
Electron Configuration the arrangement of electrons around a proton/neutron nucleus
Periodic Table list of chemical elements; based on patterns of atomic mass
Periodic Table – First column mainly soft metals that react readily with other elements
Periodic Table – Last Column gases that do NOT react readily with other elements
Physical Changes the identity of the material does not change, only the state/form does
Chemical Changes the identity of the material does change chemically; such as energy change, color or odor change, or released gas
Chemical Equations substances going into a reaction (reactants) must equal/balance substances produced by the reaction (products)
Balanced Coefficient Ratio the numbers written BEFORE the elements in a chemical equation; both sides need to be balanced in element quantity
Phase Changes of Matter solids, liquids, and gases
Water as Universal Solvent it dissolves more materials than most other solvents due to polarity (molecule charge imbalance)
Reactivity chemical reactions occurring when particle collisions take place
Nature of Solute and Solvent the sat_flash_1 of molecules that determine how they dissolve
Solubility the amount of solute at a specific temperature and pressure
Solute the substance that is dissolved in another substance
Rock Cycle Stages the 3 phases of rock formation (Igneous, Metamorphic, Sedimentary)
Igneous rocks formed mainly by heat
Metamorphic rocks formed mainly by pressure
Sedimentary rocks formed mainly by deposits and erosion

Science TAKS vocabulary

Question Answer
Hypothesis a testable explanation or prediction
Conclusion summarizing the data and results of an experiment and either accepting or rejecting the hypothesis
Independent Variable the variable that we change to see the effect it will have on the dependent variable (example: amount of water )
Dependent Variable the variable that we are studying to see how it is affected by a change in some other variable (example:height of plants)
Controlled Variables variables that are kept constant so that the changes that we observe are only due to the independent variable that we change
Data the observations made in an experiment
Model a simple or abstract way of representing something. Example: used to describe atoms
Topographic Map a map that shows the surface features or elevation of an area
Mass the measure of the amount of matter in an object. (Instrument-balance) (Unit is grams) ( NEVER CHANGES)
Volume the measure of the amount of space an object takes up. (Instrument-graduated cylinder or ruler) (unit is ml or cm3)
Density the amount of matter squeezed into a certain space. (unit- g/ml or g/cm3). Physical Property
Cells the smallest unit of life found in ALL living organisms
Unicellular made of one cell
Multicellular made of many cells
Cell Membrane outer covering found in ALL cells
Cell Wall rigid outer covering found in plants
Nucleus structure in cell where DNA or chromosomes are found
Cytoplasm fluid that fills the cell
Mitochondrian organelle in the cell where glucose is converted into energy that cells can use (respiration)
Chloroplasts structures in plant cells that contain chlorophyll which traps sunlight for photosynthesis
Respiratory system where gases can enter and exit the body. (Main organ: lungs(trachea
Digestive system where food is broken down into nutrients that can be absorbed into the blood stream
Circulatory systems where oxygen
Nervous systems where the nerves and brain control the bodies activities.
Muscular system responsible for movement (muscles are attached to bones)
Skeletal system responsible for support
Excretory system responsible for removing wastes (organ-kidneys filter waste from blood)
Endocrine system of ductless glands that secrete hormones which regulate activities such as growth and metabolism
Integumentary system that includes skin/hair/and nails
Lymphatic system that provides and cleans the fluid found between cells. (Organ- tonsils) (lymph glands are swollen during infection)
Reproductive system responsible for producing offspring. (gametes-eggs and sperm)
Immune system responsible for fighting infection (white blood cells and antibodies) (vaccines cause us to produce antibodies)
Homeostasis the process of maintaining a balance
Equilibrium the state of having a balance
Feedback a mechanism for maintaining equilibrium. Examples: Pancreas secreting insulin to regulate blood sugar or sweating when warm
Adaptations structures or behaviors that increases an organisms chance for survival
Chromosomes structures in nucleus where DNA is located
Genes a part of a DNA molecule that has the information for one trait
Alleles a form of a gene that we get from each parent
Dominant the allele that covers up another allele so that its trait get expressed
Recessive the allele that gets covered up by another allele
Homozygous both alleles are the same ( BB or bb)
Heterozygous both alleles are different (Bb)
Traits our physical and behavioral characteristics that we inherited from our parents
Punnett Square used to predict the probability of getting certain genotypes or phenotypes
Probability the chance of a certain outcome usually expressed as a percentage
Photosynthesis process where plants use carbon dioxide and water to make glucose and oxygen
Food Web shows the interrelationships between organisms in terms of the movement of energy through an ecosystem
Producer organisms that make their own food (plants)
Consumer organisms that feed on other organisms
Decomposer organisms that feed on the remains or dead organisms and breaks down organisms so nutrients can be recycled
Energy Pyramid model that represents the amount of energy/biomass at each trophic level. Only 10% of energy moves up to next level. The rest is lost as heat
Primary Succession the change from barren rock to an area with vegetation usually after volcanic eruption or removal of soil. (lichens break rock down into soil)
Secondary Succession the change that occurs after an establish forest has been destroyed but there is still soil and life forms present (fire)
Atom the smallest piece of an element
Proton particle in the nucleus of an atom with a positive charge
Neutron particle in the nucleus of an atom that does not have a charge
Electron particle found outside of the nucleus (shell/cloud) and has a negative charge
Atomic Number the number of protons in an atom (also electrons)
Isotopes atoms of the same element such as hydrogen but with different numbers of neutrons
Mass Number the number of both protons and neutrons in an atom
Periodic Table a way of organizing all of the elements found in the universe
Periods horizontal rows on the Periodic Table (The period number is the number of shells)
Groups/Families vertical columns on the Periodic Table where elements have similar chemical properties.
Valence Electrons the number of outer electrons in an atom. (It is the Group Number for the Main Elements) 1/2/3b…8b
Metals elements on the LEFT side of the Periodic Table that are usually soft/shiny/malleable/ductile/low specific heat/high melting points/good conductors
Non-metals elements on the RIGHT side of the Periodic table that are usually dull
Transition Metals elements in the middle of the Periodic Table
Metalloids elements along the zig zag stair case that have properties of both metals and nonmetals
Element a substance made up of only one atom
Compound a substance made up of two or more elements that have been chemically combined
Mixture two or more substances brought together but are not combined chemically and still keep their same properties
Matter anything that has mass and takes up space
States of Matter solid/liquid/gas/plasma
Solid has a definite shape and definite volume
Liquid has a definite volume but not a definite shape
Gas does not have a definite shape or volume
Plasma a gas at high temperatures where it has become electrically charged (lightning/fluorescent lights/Auroras/stars)
Physical Changes a change where the material keeps it's same properties such as tearing
Evaporation physical change where a liquid becomes a gas (usually due to increasing temperature)
Condensation physical change where a gas becomes a liquid (usually due to cooler temperatures)
Chemical Changes change where a substance is changed into a new substance with new properties after a chemical reaction
Physical Properties properties that describe the appearance of a substance such as color/shape/texture/luster/melting point/mass/density/etc.
Texture the surface features of a substance (smooth/rough) Physical Property
Luster describes how a substance reflects light (shiny/metallic/dull)
Physical Property describes the appearance of a material
Ductile physical property of metals being pulled or stretched into wire without breaking
Malleable physical property of metals being hammered into sheets or bent into different shapes without breaking
Mass the amount of matter in an object (measured with a balance) (unit is gram) Does not change
Volume the amount of space an object takes up (measured with graduated cylinder or ruler) (units are ml or cm3)
Density the measure of how squeezed together particles are in an object ( units are g/ml or g/cm3)
Melting Point the temperature at which a solid changes to a liquid
Boiling Point the temperature at which a liquid changes to a gas
Chemical Properties properties that describe how a substance will react chemically with another substance
Flammability the ease atwhich a material will burn
Corrosive the ability of a substance to destroy another substance through a chemical reaction (acids corrode metals)
Reactivity the degree that a substance will react chemically
Toxicity the degree that a substance can damage an organism
Subscript the number written below an element that indicates the number of atoms present (example H2O)
Coefficient the number written in front of a formula that indicates the number of molecules that are present (example 3HCl)
Law of Conservation of Mass the mass of the reactants will be the same as the mass of the products. Matter is not created or destroyed.
Reactants the substances on the left side of an equation involved in the reaction
Products the substances on the right hand side of an equation that are formed in a reaction
Exothermic a reaction where heat is released ( the beaker gets hot)
Endothermic a reaction where heat is absorbed (the beaker gets cold)
Chemical Bond the force of attraction that holds atoms together in compounds or molecules
Signs of a Chemical Reaction color change/new odor/bubbling/temperature change/solid precipitate
Energy the ability to do work(mechanical/heat/chemical/electromagnetic/nuclear) (units are Joules)
Work is done anytime a force moves an object (units are Joules or Newton/meters)
Kinetic Energy energy of motion (depends on mass and velocity)
Potential Energy energy of position (depends on mass and height) (can also depend on the distance a spring is stretched)
Waves a repeated disturbance in matter that transfers energy
Reflection a wave striking an object an bouncing back at the same angle
Refraction the bending of waves because they are entering a different substance (a spoon appearing bent or eyeglasses correcting vision)
Compression the part of a sound wave(longitudinal) where matter is squeezed together/more dense
Rarefaction the part of a sound wave (longitudinal) where matter is spread out/less dense
Forces anything that causes a change in speed or direction of an object (any push or pull) (units are Newtons)
Speed the rate at which an object changes its position (distance divided by time) d/t
Velocity the speed and direction of an object ( 60mi/hr North )
Acceleration the rate at which an objects changes its velocity (Final velocity – Initial Velocity)/(divided by the time)
Friction a force that opposes motion (drag)
Machine a device that helps us do work by changing the size or direction of a force. Simple Machines are lever/screw/inclined plane/wheel and axle/pulley/wedge
Lunar Eclipse a celestial event where the Earth blocks the sunlight casting a shadow on the Moon.
Solar Eclipse a celestial event where the Moon blocks the sunlight casting a shadow on PART of the Earth
Moon Phases occurs because we see the part of the Moon that is lit by the Sun. New/Waxing Crescent/1st Quarter/Waxing Gibbous/Full(2nd)/Waning Gibbous/3rd Quarter/Waning Crescent/New
Waning a smaller amount of the Moon is becoming visible each day.
Waxing a larger amount of the Moon is becoming visible each day
Seasons the changes in temperature due to the angle that the sunlight strikes the Earth because of its tilt while revolving around the Sun.
Inner Planets Mercury/Venus/Earth/Mars (Rocky)
Outer Planet Jupiter/Saturn/Uranus/Neptune/Pluto? (Gaseous)
Asteroids smaller solar system bodies (Many are found between the Outer and Inner Planets
Nebulae clouds of gas
Galaxies a system that contains millions to trillions of Stars along with gas/dust/and Dark Matter (Our Milky Way Galaxy is a Spiral Galaxy)
Light year the distance that light travels in one year (Our closest star from our Solar System is over 4 light years away)
Rock Cycle the process where rock can be changed and reformed
Sedimentary rock formed from sediment that is cemented and compacted (example sandstone and shale)
Metamorphic rock formed from heat and pressure (example Gneiss and Slate )
Igneous rock formed from melting and cooling
Weathering the breaking down of rock material by water/frost action/wind/plant roots/and other forces
Erosion the carrying or transporting of loose rock material/soil
Deposition the accumulating or settling of loose rock/soil materialPlate Tectonics
Converging two plates moving together (can form Mountains when Continental Plates collide)
Diverging two plates moving apart (Sea floor spreading can form Ocean Ridges)
Transform two plates moving side by side (typically cause earthquakes/San Andreas Fault)
Water Cycle the process of water changing states as it moves through the Earth's surface and troposphere (evaporation/condensation/precipitation/runoff)
Surface Water water found on the ground or in streams/rivers/lakes/or oceans
Ground water water trapped in the spaces of soil and rock.
Aquifer water found in the spaces of rocks and sediment that can readily be pumped by wells or charge a Spring.
Nitrogen Cycle the process of nitrogen in the air being fixed by bacteria for use in plants and bacteria releasing nitrogen from the remains of dead organisms back into the air (Our nitrogen comes from plants or eating animals that eat plants)
Nitrogen Fixation the process of bacteria converting atmospheric nitrogen into compounds that can be absorbed into plants.
Carbon Cycle the process of carbon moving through an ecosystem (Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis process of plants using carbon dioxide and water to make glucose and oxygen
Respiration the process of animals converting glucose into energy in the mitochondrian of cells and releasing carbon dioxide as a waste
Greenhouse Effect the phenomenon of gases in the atmosphere trapping heat that is being reflecting from the Earth causing our planet to be warm.
Ozone a layer of oxygen molecules in the Stratosphere that absorbs ultraviolet radiation from the Sun. CFC's are chemicals found in aerosols and refrigerents that can destroy this layer.
Renewable resources that can be produced by the Earth faster than we consume (wood/water/food/biomass)
Nonrenewable resources that can not be produced by Earth faster than we consume (oil/coal)
Exhaustible resources that we can run out of (coal/oil/uranium)
Inexhaustible resources that we will not run out of (solar/wind/tidal/geothermal)
Evaporation the process of a water changing to water vapor
Condensation the process of water vapor from water (clouds)
Precipitation the process of sleet


Question Answer
buoyancy the power to float or rise in a fluid; relative lightness.
viscosity measurement of the flow properties of a material expressed as its resistance to flow.
wave A vibration propagated from particle to particle through a body or elastic medium, as in the transmission of sound; an assemblage of vibrating molecules in all phases of a vibration, with no phase repeated; a wave of vibration

2-5 2-6 quiz

Question Answer
What are chunks of ice and dust whose orbits are usually long, narrow ellipses? comets
objects that are too small and numerous to be considered planets asteroids
area between Mars and Jupiter where most asteroids can be found Asteroid belt
chunk of rock or dust that come from comets or asteroids meteroids
happen several times a year, are seen as streaks of light across the sky when a meteroid burns up in the atmosphere meteors
Meteroids that pass through the atmosphere and hit Earth's surface meoterite
What are Goldilocks conditions? 1. liquid water 2. suitable (just right) temperature range 3. atmosphere
Life other than that on Earth… extraterrestrial life
a moving mass of icy cosmic debris from which comets are thought to originate oort cloud
Three parts of a comet 1. core/nucleus 2. tail 3. coma
Two types of meteors 1. meteor shower 2. sporadic
What is a meteor shower? displays of hundreds of meteors seen at night during certain times of the year
What is a sporadic meteor? a meteor that can appear at any time (day, night, or year)
Name the 4 characteristics of living things 1. one or more cells 2. take in energy 3. reproduce 4. produce and give off waste


Question Answer
Difference between epidemic and pandemic An epidemic occurs in a community or region And a pandemic occurs over a wide area crossing over international boundaries
What is risk assessment methodology used to provide quantitative measurements of risk to health.
Define determinant Any factor that brings about change in health condition or other defined characteristic.
Exposures Pertain to either to contact with a disease-causing factor or to the amount of the factor that impinges upon a group or individuals

Missouri Science Words to Know #1-15

Term Definition
accurate correct
advantage a factor or circumstance that benefits its possessor
analyze to separate something into its parts in order to examine them; to study or examine carefully
apparent appearing such, but not necessarily so; seeming
assess determine the value, significance, or extent of; appraise
balance 1)a device used to measure mass; it works by balancing an "unknown" with a standard mass that is known 2)a state of equilibrium, as in an ecosystem
bar graph A graph which answers the question: "What is the measurement for each item?" Note: a bar graph is appropriate when each item is has a discrete or categorical value .
beneficial providing benefits or advantages
bias a mental leaning, inclination, or prejudice
calculate to ascertain by computation; reckon
category a collection of things sharing a common attribute
characteristic A feature that helps to identify, tell apart, or describe recognizably; a distinguishing mark or trait.
chart a visual display of information
classify to arrange in classes or categories
composed to form by continuum, make up

Krieg 8R Final Review Vocabulary

Term Definition
Mixture Two or more elements or compounds that are physically combined.No chemical reaction takes place
Compound Two or more elements or compounds that are chemically combined.
Element Building blocks of all matter. Simplest form of matter
Metal Elements that are typically shiny, good conductors of heat and electricity, and are malleable
Non-metal Elements that are typically poor conductors of heat and electricity, brittle, and have a dull luster
Proton Positive part of an atom found in the nucleus
Electron Negative part of an atom that orbits the nucleus
Neutron Neutral part of an atom that is found in the nucleus
Hypothesis Educated guess or prediction about an experiment
Independent Variable The variable that is manipulated by the experimenter
Dependent Variable The measured variable in an experiment
Solid State of matter with a definite shape and volume. Atoms are fixed in place
Liquid State of matter with definite volume but no definite shape. Atoms or molecules will take the shape of their container
Gas State of matter with no definite shape or volume. Will expand to fill its container
Mass The amount of matter in an object
Density The amount of mass per unit of volume
Volume The amount of space an object takes up
Evaporation The phase change when a liquid changes to a gas
Condensation The phase change when a gas changes to a liquid
Freezing The phase change when a liquid changes to a solid
Melting The phase change when a solid changes to a liquid
Soluble A material that will dissolve in water
Insoluble A material that will not dissolve in water
Solution A special mixture where one material is dissolved in a liquid
Igneous Rock A rock formed by the cooling of magma or lava
Sedimentary Rock A rock formed by the buildup and cementation of layers of sediment
Metamorphic Rock A rock formed by the tremendoud heat and pressure deep inside the Earth
Physical Change A change in size, shape, or state
Chemical Change A change that creates a new substance
Atmosphere The layer of air that surrounds the Earth
Lithosphere All of the land of te Earth including the crust and the rigid mantle
Hydrosphere All of the water on the Earth including oceans, rivers, and lakes
Nucleus The center of the atom that contains the protons and the neutrons
Weathering The breaking down of rocks into small pieces
Erosion The MOVEMENT of weathered particles by Water, Wind, Gravity, or Glaciers
Deposition The dropping of sediments in a new location
Precipitation Any form of water that falls from the sky including rain, snow, sleet, and hail
Rotation The spinning of the Earth
Revolution The movement of the Earth around the sun
Continental Drift The idea that continents were once joined in a large landmass and drifted to their current locations. Proposed by Wegener in 1912
Inner Core The innermost layer of the Earth composed of solid Iron and Nickel
Outer Core This layer surrounds the inner core and is composed of liquid iron and nickel
Mantle This layer of hot molten rock is just underneath the Earth's crust
Crust The thin rocky outer layer of the Earth
Stratosphere This layer is just above the troposphere and contain the ozone layer
Troposphere The layer of the Earth's atmosphere where all weather occurs
Warm Front When warm air slides up and over a cold air mass causing light precipiation, thin cirrus clouds, and gentle winds
Cold Front When cold air quickly pushes warm air up into the atmosphere causing thick cumulus clouds, heavy precipitation, and strong gusty winds
Transform Boundary
Divergent Boundary
Convergent Boundary
Continental Drift
Water Cycle

Science QUIZ

Question Answer
What is force measured in? Force is measured in newtons
What is a force? A push or pull
What is the formula for Acceleration? Net force/Mass
What is the formula for Momentum? Mass x Velocity
What is the tendency of an object to resist a change in motion? Inertia
What is it called when gravity is the only force acting upon a falling object? A Free Fall
Law of conservation of energy- The rule that energy cannot be created or destroyed
The fluid friction experienced by objects falling through the air Air resistance
The product of an object's mass and velocity Momentum
The overall force on an object when all the individual forces acting on it are added together Net force


Question Answer
when an unbalanced force acts on an object, the force changes the motion of the object


Term Definition
evaporation the process in which a liquid changes into a gas
condensation the process in which a gas changes into a liquid
precipitation any form of water that falls to Earth (rain, snow, sleet, hail)
water cycle the continuous movement of water between Earth’s surface and the atmosphere
carbon cycle shows the continuous transfer of carbon between the atmosphere and living things
nitrogen cycle shows the way nitrogen moves between the air, soil, plants, and animals
biome one of Earth’s large ecosystem, with its own kind of climate, soil, plants, and animals
grassland a biome where grasses, not trees, are the main plant life (prairie is one type)
taiga a cool forest biome of conifers in the upper Northern Hemisphere (coniferous forest)
tundra large, treeless plain in the arctic region where the ground is frozen all year
desert a sandy or rocky biome with little precipitation and little plant life
deciduous forest a forest biome with many kinds of trees that lose their leaves each autumn
tropical rain forest a hot biome near the equator, with much rainfall and a wide variety of life
ecological succession the gradual replacement of one community by another
pioneer species the first species living in an otherwise lifeless area
pioneer community the first community thriving in a once lifeless area
climax community the final stage of succession in an area, unless a major change happens