Apologia General science module 9 study guide

Question Answer
define an atom Atom- the smallest stable unit of matter in Creation
define a molecule Molecule- Two or more atoms linked together to make a substance with unique properties.
define photosynthesis Photosynthesis – The process by which a plant uses the energy of sunlight and certain chemicals to produce its own food.
define metabolism Metabolism – The process by which a living organism takes energy from its surroundings and uses it to sustain itself, develop, and grow.
define receptors Receptors – Special structures or chemicals that allow living organisms to sense the conditions of their surroundings.
define cell Cell – The smallest unit of life in creation.
what are the first two criteria for life A. All life forms contain Deoxyribonucleic acid, which is called DNA.
B All life forms have a method by which they take energy from the surroundings and convert it into energy that helps them live.
what are the last two criteria for life? C. All life forms can sense changes in their surroundings and respond to those changes.
D. All life forms reproduce.
what does DNA provide to a living organism DNA provides the information necessary for life.
does DNA store its information more efficiently or less efficiently than a computer? DNA stores information more efficiently than a computer.
DNA is made up of two basic parts: the backbone and the nucleotides.
A- which part stores the information
B- which part forms the double helix structure
A Nucleotides store information
B The backbone forms the double helix.
Which nucleotide will link to adenine? which will link to cytosine? Thymine will link to adenine and guanine will link to cytosine
one half of a portion of DNA has the following sequence:
Cytosine, guanine, adenine, guanine, thymine, thymine.
What is the sequence of the nucleotides on the other half of this portion?
guanine, cytosine, thymine, cytosine, adenine, adenine
ONe half of a portion of DNA has the following sequence
thymine, guanine, cytosine, adenine, thymine, guanine
what is the sequence of nucleotides on the other half?
Adenine, cytosine, guanine thymine, adenine, cytosine
What is the name of the chemical that plants make for food? Glucose.
what is the name of the chemical that plants store their food as? Starch.
what is a biosphere? a biosphere is where you have a living system that is isolated from its surroundings and its sat_flash_1s continue to live and grow.
metabolism requires food and something else. what is that something else? Metabolism requires food and water
metabolism produces energy and usually two other things. what are they? . Water and carbon dioxide will also be produced.
an organisms recptors no longer work. which of the four criteria of life will the organism not be able to perform A organism will not be able to meet the third criteria for life, all life forms can sense changes in their surroundings and respond to those changes.
consider the diffrence between a shark and an anchovy. both are fish. the first is a fierce hunter that is rarely eaten by any other animal. the second is a major source of food for many other fish in the sea. which would you expect to have more babies? two anchovy parents.
every once in a while a female cat will be born sterile this means the cat cannot have kittens. does this mean that the cat is not alive, since it cannot reproduce? the cat will still be considered alive since most of its kind will be able to reproduce.
Is the population of people on this earth becoming a problem? the population on earth is not a problem
how many basic kinds of cells are there? There are three basic kinds of cells.
if a scientist uses a microscope to examin a cell from a mouse, a cell from a leaf, and a cell from a cat, how many diffrent basic kinds of cells will she see? The scientist will see two different kinds of cells.

Energy Use

Term Definition
Biomass The total quantity or weight of organisms in a given area or volume
Consumption Consumption: The using up of a resource
Energy Energy: The strength and vitality required for sustained physical or mental activity
Fuel Cell A device that produces electricity by combining a fuel, usually hydrogen, with oxygen
Geothermal Geothermal: Of, relating to, or produced by the internal heat of the earth
Nuclear Nuclear: Of or relating to the nucleus of an atom
Pollution Pollution: The presence in or introduction into the environment of a substance or thing that has harmful or poisonous effects
Solar Solar: Of, relating to, or determined by the sun
9.Renewable energy capable of being renewed
10.Non-renewable energy not allowed to be renewed.
11.Hydro-power hydroelectric power
12.Wind power power obtained by harnessing the energy of the wind.

power and energy

Term Definition
Biomass The total quantity or weight of organisms in a given area or volume
Consumption The using up of a resource
Energy The strength and vitality required for sustained physical or mental activity
Fuel Cell A device that produces electricity by combining a fuel, usually hydrogen, with oxygen (example: electric car)
Geothermal relating to, or produced by the internal heat of the earth
Nuclear Of or relating to the nucleus of an atom
Pollution The presence in or introduction into the environment of a substance or thing that has harmful or poisonous effects
Solar relating to, or determined by the sun
Renewable energy

a source of energy that is not depleted by use, such as water, wind, or solar power.

a source of energy that is not depleted by use, such as water, wind, or solar power.

Non-renewable energy (of a contract, agreement, etc.) not allowed to be renewed.
Hydro-power the production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water.
Wind power

power obtained by harnessing the energy of the wind.

power obtained by harnessing the energy of the wind.

medterm_prefix 51-75

Term Definition
Pyro- Fire, fever
Re- retro Backward, behind, again
Semi- Half
Steno- Narrow
Sub- Under, below, beneath, less
Super-, supra- Above, excess, superior
Sym- syn- Together, with
Tachy- Fast
Therm- Heat
Trans- Across, through, beyond
Ultra- Beyond, excess
Chloro- Green
Cyan- Blue
Erythro- Red
Leuko- White
Melano- Black
Polio- Gray
Bi-, di-, dipl- Two, double, twice
Tri- Three
Quadri-, tetra- Four

Metabolism

Question Answer
Define metabolism,anabolism and catabolism
Explain the role of ATP in anabolism and catabolism
Describe oxidation-reduction reactions
Explain the role of ATP In metabolism
Describe the fate,metabolism and functions of carbohydrates
Describe glycolysis
Describe the kreb's cycle, electron transport chain and aerobic respiration
Describe glycogenesis and glycogenolysis
Describe gluconeogenesis
Describe the lipoproteins that transport lipids in the blood
Describe the fate, metabolism and functions of lipids
Describe lipolysis and lypogenesis
Describe ketone bodies and ketosis
Describe the fate,metabolism and functions of proteins
Identify the three key molecules in metabolism and describe their roles

life cycle, parts, behavior

Term Definition
seed a plant structure capable of producing a new plant
pollination to place pollen on a flower
germinate to cause to sprout or develop
seedling a young plant grown from seed
adaptation to change to fit a new use or situation
physical adaptations the body of an organism changes in order to survive
behavioral adapations to change the way you act to fit a new situation.
habitat the place where a plant or animal naturally lives or grows
nutrients providing nourishment for growth or strength
scarce not plentiful

Name Draw and Label Cells!!

Term Definition
Animal Cell Every organism, or living thing, is made up of structures called cells. The cell is the smallest unit with the basic properties of life.
Plant Cell Every organism, or living thing, is made up of structures called cells.
Mitochondrian (mitochondria) Bacteria constitute a large domain or kingdom of prokaryotic microorganisms
Ribosome is not surrounded by a membrane. Proteins are made on.
Vesicle a membranous and usually fluid-filled pouch (as a cyst, vacuole, or cell) in a plant or animal
Nucleus is the part of a eukaryotic cell that directs cell activities and contains genetic information stored in DNA.
Chloroplast a membrane bound organelles that use light energy and make food – a sugar called glucose
Golgi Apparatus It prepares proteins for their specific jobs or functions. Packages proteins into tiny membranes ball like structures called vesicles.
Cell Membrane is a flexible covering that protects the inside of a cell from the environment outside a cell.
Cell Wall is a stiff structure outside the cell membrane.
Cytoskeleton Central Vacuole is a network of threadlike proteins that are joined together.
Smooth Endoplasmic reticulum an extensive intracellular membrane system whose functions include synthesis and transport of lipids and, in regions where ribosomes are attached, of proteins
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum is a type of organelle in the cells of eukaryotic organisms that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tubes known as cisternae.
Lysosome an organelle in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells containing degradative enzymes enclosed in a membrane.
Centriole a minute cylindrical organelle near the nucleus in animal cells, occurring in pairs and involved in the development of spindle fibers in cell division.
DNA is organized into structures called chromosomes.
Flagellum (flagella) a slender threadlike structure, esp. a microscopic whiplike appendage that enables many protozoa, bacteria, spermatozoa, etc., to swim.
Capsule

a tough sheath or membrane that encloses something in the body, such as a kidney, a lens, or a synovial joint.
Prokaryotic Cells the genectic material floats frelly in the cytoplasm. Is not surrounded by a membrane.
Eukaryotic Cells has genetic material that is surrounded by a membrane.
Organelles which have specialized functions. Most organelles are surrounded by membranes.
Unicellular (of protozoans, certain algae and spores, etc.) consisting of a single cell.
Multicellular (of an organism or part) having or consisting of many cells.
Cell theory States that all living things are made of one or more cells, the cell is the smallest unit of life, and all new cells come from preexisting cells.
Nuclear Membrane A nuclear membrane, also known as the nuclear envelope, nucleolemma or karyotheca, is the double lipid bilayer membrane which surrounds the genetic material and nucleolus in eukaryotic cells
Nuclear envelope contains many pores. certain molecules like ribosomes and rna move into and out of the nucleus through these pores.
Nucleolus is a large dark spot in the nucleus cell. The nucleolus makes ribosomes, organelles that are involved in the production of protein.
Bacterial Cell Bacteria constitute a large domain or kingdom of prokaryotic microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a wide range of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals. .

power and energy

Term Definition
Biomass The total quantity or weight of organisms in a given area or volume
Consumption The using up of a resource
Energy The strength and vitality required for sustained physical or mental activity
Fuel Cell The strength and vitality required for sustained physical or mental activity
Geothermal Of, relating to, or produced by the internal heat of the earth
nuclear Of or relating to the nucleus of an atom
pollution The presence in or introduction into the environment of a substance or thing that has harmful or poisonous effects
solar Of, relating to, or determined by the sun
renewable energy any naturally occurring, theoretically inexhaustible source of energy, as biomass, solar, wind, tidal, wave, and hydroelectric power, that is not derived from fossil or nuclear fuel.
non-renewable energy Of or relating to an energy source, such as oil or natural gas, or a natural resource, such as a metallic ore, that is not replaceable after it has been used.
hydro-power Hydroelectric power
wind-power power produced from windmills and wind turbines

Wumbo

Question Answer
Who created Wumbology? Patrick Star
Who is Patrick Star's Best friend? Spongebob Squarepants
Who is Patrick Star's miserable next-door neighbor? Squidward Tentacles
What is the first part of the Law of Wumbology? I Wumbo
What is the second part of the Law of Wumbology? You Wumbo
What is the third part of the Law of Wumbology? He, she we Wumbo
What is the fourth part of the Law of Wumbology? Wumboed
What is the fifth part of the Law of Wumbology? Wumboing
What is the sixth part of the Law of Wumbology? Wumbology
What is the seventh part of the Law of Wumbology? The Study of Wumbo
What color is Patrick Star? Pink
What color is Spongebob Squarepants? Yellow
What color is Squidward Tentacles? Light Blue
What is the opposite of Wumbo? Mini
How do you change Mini to Wumbo on Mermaid Man's Belt? Flip the M to a W
Who is the another person who believes in Wumbology other than Patrick Star? Mermaid Man
What subjects are Wumbology included in? Science and Math
When are students taught Wumbology? First Grade