7th grade chapter 8

Question Answer
What is the endocrine system Controls many of the body's daily activities as well as long-term changes such as development
Endocrine glands An organ of the endocrine system which produces and releases it's chemical products directly into the bloodstream
Hormones The chemical product of an endocrine gland that speeds up or slows down the activities of an organ or tissue
Target cells A cell in the body that recognizes a hormones chemical structure a cell to which a hormone binds chemically
Hypothalamus A tiny part of the brain that links the nervous system and the endocrine system
Pituitary gland An endocrine gland just below the hypothalamus that. Communicates with the hypothalamus to control many body activities
Negative feedback A process in which a system is turned off by the condition it produces examples includes regulation of temp by a thermostat and the regulation of the levels of many hormones in the blood
Egg A female sex cell
Sperm A male sex cell
Fertilization The joining of a sperm and an egg
Reproduction The process by which living things produce new individuals of the same type
Zygote A fertilized egg produced by the joining of a sperm and an egg
Chromosome Rod-shaped structures in cells that carry the info. that controls inherited characteristics such as eye color and blood type
Testosterone A hormone produced by testes that controls the development of physical characteristics in men
Scrotum An external pouch of skin in which the testes are located
Semen A mixture of sperm cells and fluids
Penis The organ through which both the semen and urine leave the male body
Ovaries Organs of the female reproductive system in which eggs and estrogen are produced
Estrogen A hormone produced by the ovaries that controls the development of adult female characteristics
Oviduct A passageway for eggs from an ovary to the uterus the place where fertilization usually occurs
Uterus The hollow muscular organ of the female reproductive system in which a baby develops
Vagina A muscular passageway through which a baby leaves the mothers body
Menstrual cycle The monthly cycle of changes that occurs in the female reproductive system during which an egg develops and the uterus prepares for the arrival of a fertilized egg
Ovulation The process in which a mature egg is released from the ovary into an oviduct occurs about halfway through a typical menstrual cycle
Menstruation The process that occurs if fertilization does not take place, in which the thickened lining of the uterus breaks down and blood and tissue then pass out of the female body through the vagina
Embryo A developing human during the first eight weeks after fertilization has occurred
Amniotic sac A fluid-filled sac that cushions and protects a developing fetus in the uterus
Placenta A membrane that becomes the link between the developing embryo or fetus and the mother
Umbilical cord A rope like structure that forms in the uterus between the embryo and the placenta
Fetus A developing human from the ninth week of development until birth
Adolescence The stage of development between childhood and adulthood when children become adults physically and mentally
Puberty The period of sexual development during the teenage years in which the body becomes able to reproduce