Ch. 12-13 Test

Question Answer
When harmful substances build up in the air to unhealthy levels the result is ____________. Air Pollution
Most air pollution can be traced to what two things? Cars and Industry
A pollutant that is put directly into the air by human activity is called a ______________ pollutant. primary
Give and example of a primary pollutant. carbon monoxide
A ______________pollutant forms when a primary pollutant comes into contact with another primary pollutant or other natural substance and a chemical reaction occurs secondary
Give an example of a secondary pollutant. ozone
List the five primary pollutants and their source. carbon monoxide, particulates, sulfur dioxides, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds
1/3 of our air pollution comes from what? operation of motor vehicles.
Over 90% of yearly mileage comes from what? Single cars
What gave the EPA the right to regulate vehicle emissions? Clean Air Act of 1970
What poisonous heavy metal was removed from gasoline as a result? Lead (Pb)
What structure were cars required to have to reduce harmful emission? Catalytic Converter
Today cars run 35% more efficiently and with _____% fewer emissions excluding _______. 95%; Carbon dioxide
Explain how a catalytic converter works. Lined with a catalyst that helps a chemical reaction occur that changes unsafe emissions into safer emissions
Power plants produce _____of all SO2 and_______of all NOx primary pollution in the atmosphere. 2/3; 1/3
How are these pollutants formed? Chemical plants, oil refineries, dry cleaners, auto body shops, furniture refinishers.
Describe how scrubbers work. removes SO2 emissions from the exhaust of coal-fired power plants by spraying a wet slurry of limestone into a large chamber where the calcium in the limestone reacts with the SO2 in the flue gas.
Describe how electrostatic precipitators work. transfer electric charge to dust particles and cause them to clump together
Define smog, and how it is formed smoke and fog combined; when air pollution hangs over urban areas and reduces visibility. Results from chemical reaction between sunlight, nitrogen and hydro carbons.
Define thermal inversion Where warm air traps cool air below and does not allow it to move and circulate and traps pollutants
Where does thermal inversion occur? Valleys
What harmful emission does a car emit? Carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrous oxide compounds
What Is indoor pollution? Pollution that occurs in tightly sealed buildings with poor circulation
What is sick-building syndrome? a condition affecting office workers, typically marked by headaches and respiratory problems, attributed to unhealthy or stressful factors in the working environment such as poor ventilation
Who is most at risk because of ground level ozone? Children, adults who exercise/work outdoors, and those with respiratory disease
How is radon produces, and what deadly disease can it cause? Seeps from rocks containing Uranium. It attaches to dust particles and when people inhale the dust radon can enter the lungs and cause lung cancer
What was asbestos used for? Why was it removed from building? Insulation. It was causing disease (asbestosis) from inhaling the fibers that caused scarring in the lung tissue, which does not allow the lungs to expand and contract.
What law required that it be removed from schools? Asbestos Hazard and Emergency Response Act of 1986
What is noise pollution? Certain types of sounds, length of sounds and loudness of sounds that can have negative health effects
What is light pollution? Use of inefficient light in urban areas that is diminishing the view of night sky
What are three solutions for light pollution 1. shielding light so it is directed downward
2. using time controls so that light is used only when needed
3. using low-pressure sodium sources
What decibel level can cause permanent deafness? Over 120 decibels
___________is precipitation that contains a high concentration of acids. Acid Precipitation
Explain how acid rain is formed Fossil fuels are burned and release oxides of sulfur and nitrogen, they combine with water in the atmosphere to form sulfuric acid and nitric acid which then falls as acid rain.
What is a pH scale? What are the numbers for an acid, base and a neutral substance. Charts the level of acidity or alkalinity. Acid0 0-6; neutral- 7; base- 8-14
What is the pH of acid rain? 5.0 or below
What element leaches into lakes and can accumulate in the gills of fish suffocating them? Aluminum
Acid rain that falls in Canada is released by what part of the US? Midwest
What is acid shock? How is it cleaned up? When acidic snow is melted in the spring, it enters the rivers, lakes and streams that brings huge changes in pH. Solution- spread lime that neutralizes the acid.
What pollutant forms when car emissions react with oxygen gas and ultraviolet rays? ozone
What international agreement limits the use of CFC’s? Montreal Protocol
What international agreement limits the production of CO2? Kyoto Protocol
How long do CFC’s stay in the atmosphere after breaking down? 80-100 years
When was the clean air act passed? 1990
How is ozone naturally made? Diatomic (O2) oxygen molecules react with ultraviolet radiation to produce ozone (03)
What is the function of the ozone layer? To shield the Earth’s surface from most of the sun’s ultraviolent light.
List the three ways that radiant energy is lost or absorbed when it reaches the Earth. 30% is lost to space, 51% absorbed by surface of Earth, and 19% absorbed by the atmosphere
Define the Greenhouse effect. Solar radiation warms Earth’s surface, energy from the sun is absorbed then radiated into the atmosphere as heat, and gases also absorb some of the sun’s energy and radiate it back toward the lower atmosphere and Earth’s surface.
Describe the Keeling curve. What does it say about CO2 emissions? It fluctuates since during the summer, growing plants use more CO2 for photosynthesis than they release in respiration which makes the CO2 levels decrease in the summer and in the winter they rise again.
List the four main greenhouse gases. Carbon dioxide (CO2), CH4, N2O, H2O
What is the number one cause of increasing greenhouse gases? Global warming, the increase in temperature
50. How does latitude affect the climate? Ocean currents? Because of the amount of solar energy an area of Earth receives depends on the latitude.
Where does most of the ozone depletion occur? Why? Polar regions—Polar vortex (circular wind patterns) over poles traps air and temporarily stores CFC’s, when the sunlight returns and melts frozen droplets in upper atmosphere the light stimulates the formation of ClO and ozone molecules are broken down
How long does it take CFC’s to get to the ozone layer from the ground? 10-20 years
How do CFC’s destroy the ozone? When the CFC is broken down chlorine is released and the chlorine atom reacts with the ozone molecule release an oxygen atom and diatomic oxygen
03 —– O2 + O
The average global temperature has ________ during the 20th century. increased
55. Why is climate change a more appropriate term? Because the global temperature increase is so slight and over a very long period of time—environmentalist are more concerned with climate changes associated with that temperature increase
List two effects that rising waters will have on coastal areas. Floods, destroy habitats, increase in vector-borne diseases