CLEP study guide definitions

Term Definition
Achieved Status A position in society and/or group that is assumed largely through one's own doings or efforts.
Aggregate A number of people who happen to be in the same place at the same time.
Ascribes Status A position in society and/or group that is automatically conferred on a person.
Association A type of relationship formed on the basis of an accommodation of interests of on the basis of an agreement.
Audience A type of passive crowd that is both oriented and responding to a social situation in a relatively orderly and predictable way.
Bureaucracy A rationally designed organization model whose goal is to perform complex tasks as efficiently as possible.
Causal Relationship Exists when a change in one variable causes or forces a change in the other.
Characteristic Institution The basis organization of society.
Charismatic Authority Authority based on the extraordinary, uncanny, and supernatural powers or abilities that have been associated with a particular person.
Class A group of people who have in common a certain relationship to the means of production.
Communal Relationship A relationship that is formed on the basis of the subjective feelings of the party.
Conflict Paradigm View of society as being characterized by conflict and inequality.
Conflict Theory A view of the social world that questions how factors are associated with an unequal distribution of socially valued goods.
Contagion theory Theory developed by Gustave Lebon. Crowds have a powerful influence.
sat_flash_1 Analysis The quantitive or qualitive techniques employed to describe the sat_flash_1s of the materials.
Convergence Theory A theory that individuals posses particular motivations.
Counterculture Values, beliefs, and lifestyles that do not conform to the norm.
Craze Collective behavior to have something because everyone else does.
Cultural Relativism Social scientists efforts to be objective in their observations.
Deductive Theory Proceeds from general ideas, knowledge, or understanding of the social world.
Division of Labor The manner in which work is divided among individuals.
Dyad The social relationship of two people in which either member's departure destroys the group.
Emergent norm Theory Theory developed by Ralph Turner and Lewis Killian.
Endogamy Marriage within specific groups.
Ethnocentrism Attitude that one culture and values are the only true ones.
Exogamy Marriage outside specific groups.
Folkways The usual customs and conventions of everyday life.
Gemeinschaft Ferdinand Tonnies. Small communities characterized by tradition
Gesellschaft Ferdinand Tonnies. Contractual relationships of a voluntary nature of limited duration and quality.
Grand Theory Talcott Parsons. Organization of concepts of society as a stable system of interrelated parts.
Humanistic Approach that stresses self-realization, full development of a cultivated personality, and improvement of the human condition.
Independent variable A variable that influences another variable.
Inductive theory General conclusions are inferred through a process of reasoning.
In groups Groups towards which a person feels he or she belongs.
Interaction Process Analysis Robert Bales. Classifying ongoing activity in small groups.
Interpretive Theory Studies the processes whereby human beings attach meaning to their lives.
Iron Law of Oligarchy Robert Michels. Small number of specialists hold sway over an organization.
Kinship Symbolic meaning or value to actual or imagined blood ties.
Mass Hysteria A collective emotional response to tensions and anxiety in a group.
Master Status The status with which the person is most identified.
Monogamy Having one spouse at a time.
Mores Strong ethical norms of a society.
Neolocality When newlyweds live in a new or separate residence.
Out groups Groups towards which a person feels a sense of competition or opposition.
Parkinsons Law Belief that in any bureaucratic organization "work expands to fill time available for it's completion."
Participant Observation Observation by a researcher who is involved in the experiment.
Peter Principle Belief that in any hierarchy every employee tends to rise to his level of incompetence.
Post industrial Societies Societies in which information is created, processed, and stored.
Primary Deviance Behavior violating a norm
Primary Sector Involved in the extraction of raw materials and natural resources.
Primary Socialization The initial socialization a child receives that makes them part of society
The visceral sphere capable of being understood and altered. Profane.
Qualitive Method Research method that relies on personal observation to explain behavior.
Quantitive Method Research method that makes us use mathematical equations and statistical thinking to solve behavior.
Rational legal Authority Authority stemming from within the frameworks of a body of laws that have been dully enacted.
Resocialization Discarding behavioral practices and adopting new ones as a way of life.
Sociology The science that studies societies, social groups, and the relationships between people.
Sociometry J.L. Moreno. Interaction in small groups.
Stratified Sampling A type of sampling that uses the differences already in society.
Totalitarian A form of government where there is not a limit for authority.