Question Answer
ONE YEAR 1 revolution of the earth around the Sun is 365 days
ONE DAY 1 rotation of the Earth ON ITS AXIS(23 hours 56 minutes rounded to 24 hours)
Equinox During the spring and fall around March 21 and September 21(Sun is directly at the equator)there is an equal amount of daylight and darkness
Solstice During June 21 and December 21, are the longest days of the year
Objects in the sky at night Earth is rotating on its axis and revolving around the Sun
Solar Eclipse the moon is between the Sun and Earth
Lunar Eclipse the Earth is between the Sun and moon
Eclipses Shadows from the Earth and moon
Inner Planets Solid planets such as Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars that are more dense than the outer planets
Outer Planets The gas planets such as Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune
Moon to revolve around the Earth approximately 28 days and during this time the moon will go through all the phrases
Big Bang Theory how the universe was created states that the universe began as a point of energy and matter that exploded which allowed everything in the universe to form
Seasons Winter, Spring, Summer, and Fall occur because of the tilt of the Earth's axis
Day and Night Earth rotates on its axis and 1 rotation is about 24 hours
Objects float in space Earth's gravity affects objects less and less the farther the object is from Earth. Gravity holds all objects in the Solar System in place
Moon Appears to change shape because it revolves around Earth. The Moon's actual shadow causes phrases of the Moon. The moon can be waxing(gain light) or waning(loose light)during the month
Affect appearance of a shadow the position of the light source and the position of the object itself
Asteroid Belt located between Mars and Jupiter. It separates the inner planets and the outer planets
Three types of galaxies irregular(no definite shape), elliptical(oval shaped), and spiral(Frisbee shaped)
Milky Way spiral shaped and our Solar System is located near the outside edge of the Milky Way, far from the center.
Comet chunk of rock and ice that orbits the sun like a planet. Comets come from Kuiper Belt and or Oort Cloud
meteor friction of the Earth's Atmosphere making the meteoroid burn up. Sometimes meteoroids strike the Earth's surface. Then they are known as a meteorite.
Spring Tides When the Earth, Moon, and the Sun are in a straight line in orbit, high tides can occur
Neap Tides When the Sun, Moon, and Earth form a 90 degree angle, the tides will be lower than normal
Apollo Space Program the one that reached the moon
planet's or star's gravity The closer an object moves a planet or star, the greater the effect that planet's or star's gravity will have on that object
magnitude of a star Star's brightness
Apparent Magnitude how the star appears on Earth
Absolute Magnitude how bright the star actually is
Sun medium sized star
Light Year distance light can travel in one year
Novas and Supernovas exploding stars in space
Quasars star-like objects, they are brighter than stars and considered to be the most luminous(giving off its own light) objects in the Universe
Pulsars stars that pulsate, when this happens the star appears to be dimming and becoming brighter as it pulsates
Electromagnet Spectrum the arrangement of electromagnetic waves
Reflecting Telescopes uses lenses and mirrors to view distant objects
Refracting Telescopes uses lenses to view distant objects
Radio telescopes, X-ray telescopes, Infrared telescopes, and Gamma ray Telescopes use invisible waves from the electromagnetic spectrum to make images on computer screens of distant object
Satellite any natural or manmade object that revolves or orbits around another object
Asteroids large meteoroid in space and most of them are located in the Asteroid Belt
Vacuum The Moon has no atmosphere and weathering and erosion cannot take place on the Moon
Rings All the outer planets have rings. Saturn has the most rings and Jupiter has the most moons
Earth The only planet in the Solar System that can support life. It has sufficient water and oxygen and a climate that can support life
Constellations patterns of stars in the sky, can provide a map to locate objects in space
Astronomical Unit Used to refer distances in space, one AU is about 93,000,000 miles, or the distance between Sun and the Earth
orbit around the sun the closer the planet is to the Sun, the shorter the year it will have because its orbit around the Sun is shorter
Gravitational Pull The larger an object in space the more gravitational pull it will have. The Moon has a gravitational pull about 1/6 that of the Earth. If you weighed 100 pounds on Earth, you would weigh about 18 pounds on the moon.
Life in the Universe There is no other life in the Universe besides the life on Earth.
Black Hole a collapsed star whose gravity has grown so great that even light cannot escape its atmosphere
Space Probe launched into space to travel to distant areas in space while sending back information by electromagnetic waves
Space Shuttle takes of like a rocket but flies and lands like an airplane
Space Station allow astronauts to stay and orbit Earth for a couple of months
Geocentric Theory Earth was at the center of the Solar System
Heliocentric Theory the Sun was the center of the Solar System
Our Solar System located towards the outskirts of our Galaxy, "The Milky Way," Our Solar System, The Milky Way, and all of the other matter make up the Universe.
Globular Cluster and Open Cluster Stars can be grouped together in formations
Photosphere our Sun is the part we can see from Earth.
light from the Sun It takes about 8 minutes for the light from the Sun to reach the Earth(186,000 miles per second)
Objects we see at Night show us the past because we are viewing the light that left the objects or reflected off the objects. It may take a million years for this light to reach Earth.
Nuclear Fusion Stars make their energy. This process creates much more energy
What do scientists say the Universe is still expanding today
Luminous gives off its own light
Illuminated it reflects the light from other objects
valley more deeply eroded than two other valleys in the near vicinity
metamorphic rock heat and pressure inside the Earth
mineral mica breaks with cleavage because the atoms have a regular arrangement which allows this to happen
Hot Spot The Hawaiian Chain was created by magma rising through the crust of the Earth in the same area for a very long time
Coal formed from dead plants that lived millions of years ago. Types: Anthracite, Bituminous, and Lignite
Nonrenewable Resources once it is used, it can no longer be created
Renewable Resources resources that can be used over and over again and will not run out
Erosion can cause mountains to be worn away over millions of years
Regional Climate The greatest influence that would cause the most weathering and erosion on the Earth's surface
Faulting breaking and cracking of the Earth's crust on the Earth's surface as well as below the surface
Mountains high elevations and steep slopes
Plains low elevations and gentle slopes
Plateaus medium elevations with steep to gentle slopes
Halite breaks with cleavage and at 90 degree right angles to each other. when it breaks, the shape looks like cubes
Limestone made from the element Calcium that forms into the mineral Calcite which forms into Limestone
Chemical Weathering a rock that can be worn down by chemicals in the environment
Mechanical Weathering a rock that would be caused by physical processes like moving water, wind, and glaciers
Glacier ice U-Shaped valleys that can be created in mountain areas when these glaciers move along. Can be found on mountains or ice covering large areas of land.
Fjords and Sea Inlets carved by glaciers
Crevasses cracks in a glacier
Till and Moraine debris that are pick up and carried by the glacier
Moh's Mineral scale hardness of minerals from 1-10
Crystal Structure difference of the minerals hardness
Compaction sediment being pushed together
Igneous Rock magma is cooled down
Rock Cycle process of rock changing from one form to another
Three types of volcanoes Shield, Cinder Cone, and Composite
Shield gently sloping side-layers of lava build up creating it
Cinder Cone steep sided-made of tephra, loosely packed material like ash and dust
Composite looks like a regular mountain with layers of tephra and lava building it up
Three types of earthquakes Primary Waves, Secondary Waves, and Surface Waves
Richter scale measures the strength of an earthquake
Seismograph the instrument that picks up seismic(earthquake)waves
Seismologist a scientist that studies earthquakes
Minerals and Rocks characteristics hardness, color, streak, fracture, cleavage, and luster
Specific Gravity characteristic of a mineral-it is the ration of the weight of the mineral compared with an equal volume of water
Asthenosphere plastic like
Lithosphere more solid and rock like
Silicon the most abundant element in the Earth's crust
Silicon Dioxide known as sand, the most abundant compound in the Earth's crust
Aluminum the most abundant metal in the Earth's crust
Ore a rock that contains a metal that can be extracted and use to help humanity
Foliated Rocks rocks that form in layers
Nonfoliated Rocks rocks that don't form in layers
Continental Drift scientific process used by scientists to explain how one large landmass millions of years ago became the 7 continents we have today
Cementation when particles of gets glued or cemented together. this can happen in sedimentary rocks
Deposition depositing sediments in an area and layers can build up over time
Fossil Fuels coal, oil known as petroleum, and natural gas are nonrenewable
Topographic Map a map that shows changes in elevation
Three Horizons in the soil profile Horizons A, B, and C
Stalactites cone feature hanging from the top of a cave
Stalagmites cone feature building up from the bottom of a cave
Paleontology study of the past like fossils and dinosaurs
Paleontologist a scientist that studies the past
Uniformitarianism belief that the Geologic processes of the past are happening just like they are today forming the features of the Earth's surface
Catastrophism the idea that geologic change occurs suddenly.
Superposition states that younger rock layers lie above older rock layers
unconformity rock layers have been folded, tilted, or changed drastically
Rock Layers(called Strata) can be stretched(tension), folded, uplifted, subducted (pushed down or under other rock layers), or compressed (pushed together)
Direct evidence of the movements of the Earth's tectonic plates Earthquakes and Volcanoes
Indirect evidence of the movements of the Earth's plates fossil of an ocean fish found on top of a high mountain that is no longer covered by ocean water
Two types of Earth's crust Oceanic and Continental
Sea Floor Spreading Younger rock is found at the middle of the oceans near the Mid-Ocean Ridges, while older rock is found towards the continents
Seismology study of earthquakes
Convergent Plate Boundary where tectonic plates are moving together
Divergent Plate Boundaries where tectonic plates are moving apart
Transform Plate Boundaries where tectonic plates are sliding side by side
Plate Tectonics the theory that the crustal plates of the Earth have been moved and are still moving today
Eons longest time category
Eras second largest time category
Periods third largest time category
Epochs fourth largest time category
Anticline formation in which rock layers have been folded upward and make an A-shaped structure
Syncline the opposite in which rock layers have been folded downward into a U-shaped formation
Convection air is heated by sunlight
Clouds dense, cold air pushes warm air upward
The Gulf Stream warm ocean current that can affect the climate of the northern part of the United States
Hail produced when wind lifts water droplets high into a thunderstorm cloud. the droplets freeze.
Hailstone stronger storm
Water Vapor in desert air(humidity)
Bodies of Water, Oceans, Rivers, Lakes change temperature slowly because liquids heat and cool more slowly than other types of matter
Weather Forecasts accurate weather the Earth has
Fronts show boundaries of air masses
Land solid, absorbs radiation from the Sun faster than water, it heats more quickly than water
Global Winds high pressure polar air low pressure equatorial air
Snowfall temperatures are 32 degrees or below and clouds precipitate
Interior continents have more extreme differences between winter and summer because these areas are away from the effects of the ocean
Solar Radiation produce heat on Earth because the radiation warms the air
Radiation from the Sun can effect both weather and climate
Earth's rotate on axis Makes global winds curve
Tides have to do with Sun and Moon's gravitational pull on the Earth causing the rise and fall of the ocean
Effect Earth's climate change Meteorite collisions, deforestation, and changing ocean currents
Sea and Land Breeze the land heats and cools more quickly than the water
Air is warmed by sunlight the air expands and rises resulting in convection
Hygrometer or Psychrometer measures the amount of humidity in the air
Rain Gauge measures how much rain has fallen
Anemometer measures the speed of wind
Thermometer measures temperature
Ocean Bottom Continental Shelf, Continental Slope, Abyssal Plain
Humidity water vapor in the air and can cause a person to feel damp on a hot summer day
The Dew Point Temperature the actual temperature of the air it has to be in order to condensation
Sea Breeze occurs during the night
Land Breeze occurs during the day
Groundwater if used more quickly than replaced then wells can go dry
sky over deserts is not cloudy not enough moisture or humidity in the air for clouds to form
Aquifer a very large area underground that can supply water to thousands of people
Volcanoes are part of the water cycle because they do release water vapor into the atmosphere
Wind and Temperature variations cause ocean currents
Earth's water and land water 70% and land 30%
Mineral can get into streams and rivers rainwater can dissolve the minerals out of the rocks and soils during the runoff when it is raining
Seafloor Spreading new ocean floor because magma comes to the surface and makes new seafloor
Volcanoes and Ridges form as the ocean floor spreads apart
Subduction one plate move under another
Ring Of Fire located around the Pacific Ocean is the most active place on Earth for volcanoes and earthquakes
Temperatures and Climate can be slightly warmer
Hurricane waken as they move over cooler water because they lose their fuel source
Evaporation changing from liquid to gas
Condensation changing from gas to a liquid
Precipitation rain, snow, sleet, hail, freezing rain
Warm Winters and Cool Summer oceans warm the city during the winter and cools the city during the summer because water warms and cools more slowly than air and land
Five Types of clouds Cirrus, Cumulus, Stratus, Cumulonimbus, Nimbostratus
Cirrus high clouds made of ice crystals
Cumulus middle height clouds made of water vapor, these are fair weather clouds, seen in the summer
Stratus low level clouds that look like a dull gray blanket
Cumulonimbus clouds are thunderstorm clouds that can produce hail, lightning, and tornadoes
Nimbostratus rain clouds that produce drizzle or steady rain but really no severe weather
Nimbo a Latin word for rain
Troposphere lowest layer of the Earth's atmosphere in which 99% of all weather occurs
Stratosphere above the troposphere and contains the ozone layer that protects us from the Sun's harmful ultraviolent rays
Hydrosphere all of the water on the Earth's surface
Greenhouse Effect when carbon dioxide and water vapor trap the Sun's heat in the Earth's atmosphere
Global Warming humans are producing too much carbon dioxide
Coriolis Effect causes air to move to the left in the Southern Hemisphere and to the right in the Northern Hemisphere
Geologist studies the inside of Earth's surface features as well as inside of the Earth
Meteorologist studies the Earth's weather and atmosphere
Salinity measure of how much salt is dissolved in ocean water
Longshore Current the movement of the ocean that is parallel to the beach or coastline
Earth's Atmosphere 78% Nitrogen, 21% Oxygen, and 1% Argon
El Nino the warming of the Pacific Ocean off the coast of South America
La Nina the cooling of the Pacific Ocean water off the coast of South America, it can also affect the Earth's weather patterns
Geo Earth
Bio life
Hydro water
Pyro fire
Micro small
Mega large
Magneto magnetic
Astro space
Electro electricity
Lith rock
Therm temperature, heat
Cryo cold
Nimbo rain
Photo light
Meta change
Solar sun
Lunar moon
Baro weight
Super, Ultra, Hyper more than
Sub under
Intrusive inside
Extrusive outside
Bi, Di two
Poly, Multi many
Tri three
Un, In, Non, Mis not
Mono, Uni one
Quad four
Penta five
Octo eight
Omni all
Re again
Iso equal
Homo same
Hetero different
Paleo, Archeo ancient
Seismo earthquake
Volcan, Vulcan volcano
Meso middle
Neo new
Chromo time
Strato layers
Sphere ball shaped
Pro forward, positive
Infra being or belonging to
Pre before
Trans across, beyond, travel
Audio to hear
Hypo less than
Tele distance, travel
organic contains carbon and is found in living things
inorganic does not contain carbon and is nonliving, like certain rocks and all minerals