Everything we need for sixth grade science

Term Definition
One Year One revolution of the Earth around the sun. 365 days
One day one rotation of the earth on its axis
Equinoxes When there is an equal amount of daylight and darkness; spring& fall
Solstices Longest and shortest days of the year. Day is longer than night or vice-versa
Solar eclipse Moon is positioned between the earth and the sun; shadows from the earth and the moon cause eclipses
Lunar eclipse The earth is positioned between the the sun and the moon; shadows from earth and moon cause eclipses
Inner planets Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars are mostly solid they are denser than the outer planets
Outer planets Jupiter,Saturn,Uranus,Neptune. Gaseous planets
Big Bang theory States that the universe began as a point of energy and matter that exploded which allowed everything in the universe to form
Seasons occur because of the earths axis
Gravity a force that hold all objects of the solar system in place
Moon moon's shadow is why we see phases of the moon
Asteroid belt Separates the inner planets from the outer planets
Irregular galaxy no particular form/shape
Elliptical galaxy oval shaped
Spiral galaxy Frisbee shaped
Comet Chunk of rock and ice, orbits the sun like a planet. Its tail is made when heat from the sun melts the ice and is released into space
Meteor Happens because of the friction of the earth's atmosphere making the meteoroid burn up
Meteoriod Rocks in space
Meteorite A meteoriod that hit the earth's surface is then considered a meteorite
Spring tide When the Earth,Moon,and Sun are all aligned in orbit, very high tides can occur
Neap tides When the Earth,Moon,and Sun form a 90 degree angle, tides are lower than usual
Apparent magnitude How a star appears from the earth
Magnitude Describes a stars brightness
Light year The distance light can travel in one year. It is used to measure extreme distances in space
Novas& Super Novas Exploding stars in space
Quasars are star like objects, that are brighter than stars. Considered to be luminous
Pulsars Stars that pulsate when this happens stars appear to become dimmer and then brighter
Electromagnetic Spectrum The arrangement of electromagnetic waves. Ex. Radio waves, x-rays, microwave
Reflecting telescopes Uses lenses and mirrors to view distant objects
Refracting telescopes Uses lenses to view distant objects
Satellite any natural or man made object that revolves around anther object
Asteriod A large meteoroid in space
Constellations patterns of stars in the sky,can provide a map to locate objects in space
Astronomical unit used sometimes to refer to distances in space
Black hole collapsed star t=whose gravity has grown so great that even light can not escape its atmosphere
Geocentric Theory States that earth is at the center of the solar system
Heliocentric Theory States that the sun is at the center of the solar system
Solar System The sun,planets,and everything else that revolves around the sun. Milky way galaxy
Photosphere The part of the sun that we can see form earth
Nuclear fusion The joining of hydrogen atoms together to make helium atoms
Nuclear fission The splitting of atoms from elements like uranium, which is used on earth to make energy to produce electricity at nuclear power plants
Luminous Gives off its on light
Illuminated Reflects light from other objects
Metamorphic rock Rock that is created by changing other rocks by heat and pressure inside the earth
Mineral mica Breaks with cleavage because the atoms have a regular arrangement which allow this to happen
Cleavage Breaking along smooth flat surfaces
Hot spot Magma rising through the crust of the earth in the same area for a very long time
Plate tectonics The movement of earths crust
Coal Nonrenewable, formed from dead plants that lived millions of years ago. Three diferent types of coal anthracite,bituminous,lignite
Anthracite coal best fro burning because it burns hot and clean which is good for electrical plants
Nonrenewable resource A resource that can not be created at the pace it is being used
Renewable resource resources that can be used over and over again and they will not run out
Biomass living things like trees
Erosion When a weathered material is being moved to a different place by a force, like wind
Regional climate average of all weather conditions in an area over an extended period of time
Faulting breaking and cracking of the earth's crust, during this cracks can happen but hills and mtns. can be formed as well
Transform Boundary Plates sliding past each other. Strike slip fault,shear stress
Divergent boundary Plates moving away . Normal fault,tension stress
Convergent boundary Plates colliding. Reverse fault compression stress
Halite breaks with cleavage and at 90 degree right angles to each other. when halite breaks it looks like cubes
Limestone A lot of the element calcium, can be worn down by other chemicals in the enviornment
Chemical weathering wearing down other elements by the chemicals in the enviornment
Mechanical weathering caused by physical processes like moving water
Till&Moraine debris that are picked up and carried by the glacier
Moh's Mineral scale numbered from one to ten on a mineral hardness
Crystal structure how the crystals in a mineral are formed
Compaction Sediments being pushed together
Sedimentary rock when a rock has gone through the process of Weathering Erosion Deposition Compaction Cementation
Igneous rock can form inside or outside the earth's surface. They are made from magma or lava
Granite a very hard intrusive igneous rock
Pluton giant area formed by cooling magma undergroung
Rock cycle the process of changing a rock from one form to another
Shield volcanoe gently sloping side layers of lava build up creating it
Cinder cone volcanoe steep side,made of tephra, loosely packed materials like ash and dust
Composite looks like a regular mountain with layers of tephra and lave building up
Primary earth quake waves fastest waves
Secondary earth quake waves second fastest
surface earth quake waves third fastest
Richter scale measure the strength of and earthquake
Seismograph instrument that picks up seismic waves
Seismologist scientist that studies earthquakes
Specific gravity it is the ration of the weight of a mineral compared with an equal volume of water
Lithosphere made of the oceanic and continental crust
silicon dioxide sand
Ore a rock that contains metal that can be extracted and used to help humanity
Foliated rocks rocks that from in layers
nonfoliated rocks rocks that do not form in layers
cementation when rocks or particles appear to be glued together
continental drift scientific process used by scientists to explain how one large landmass millions of years ago became the seven continents we know today
Deposition depositing sediments in an area and layers can build up over time
Fossil fuels are nonrenewable, caol, oil
Topographic map a map that shows changes in elelvation
Stalacites cone feature hanging from the top of a cave
Stalagmites cone feature building up from the bottom of the cave
Paleontologist Scientist that studies fossils
Paleontology the study of the past,like fossils and dinosaurs
Uniformitarianism the belief that geologic processes of the past are happening just like they are today, like erosion
Catastrophism the idea that geological change happens suddenly, like an earthquake
Superposition states that younger rocks are found on top of older rocks
Seafloorspreading occurs at mid ocean ridges
Seismology the study of earthquakes
Eons longest time catgory
Eras second longest time period
Periods third largest time period
Epochs fourth largest time period
Anticline formation in which rock layers have been folded upward
Syncline rock layers have been folded downward
Convection when air is heated by sunlight. the air expands rises and eventually turns into a cloud
Clouds form when dense,cold air pushes warm air upward. the air cools and condednses
Gulf stream warm ocean current that can affect the climate of of the northern eastern part of the united states
Hail droplet freeze and grow larger until the force of gravity overcomes the strength of the wind pushing the ice pellets upward
Water vaper humidity
Front boundaries between air masses
Cold front separates cold air from warm air
Warm front separates warm air from cold air
Global winds high pressure polar air and low pressure equatorial air
Solar radiation waves of energy from the sun produce heat on earth
Tides The sun and moon's gravitational pull on the earth making the rise and fall of the ocean
Sea&land breezes the land heats and cools faster than water
Hygrometer of psychrometer measures the amount of humidity in the air
Dew point tempurature the actual tempurature of the air it has to be in order for water vapor to condenses
Sea breeze breeze blowing towards the land from the sea,happens during the day
Land breeze breeze blowing towards the sea from the land,happens at night
Aquifer is a very large area underground that can supply water to thousands of people
Earth's water 70% water 30% land,oceans make up 97% of earth's water 3% is fresh water of which most is glacier and ice caps
Subduction when one plate moves under another
Cirrus cloud high clouds made of ice crystals
Cumulus cloud middle height clouds made of water vapor, fair weather clouds, seen in summer
Cumulonimbus clouds thunderstorm clouds that can produce hail, rain, lightning and tornadoes
Nimbostratus cloud rain clouds that produce drizzle or steady rain but no real sever weather
Troposhpere the lowest layer of earth's atmosphere in which 99% of all weather occurs
Stratosphere above the troposphere and contains the ozone layer that protects us from the sun's harmful rays
Greenhouse effect when carbon dioxide and water vapor trap the sun's heat in earth's atmosphere
Coriolis effect cause air to move left in the southern hemisphere and right in the northern hemisphere
Long shore current movement of water parallel to the beach or coastline