exam 2 flash cards

Question Answer An atom can be broken up into what subatomic particles? Protons, neutrons, & electrons Which subatomic particle is responsible for an element reacting with another element? electrons are responsible for the actual reactions which take place because they are moving back and forth What elements make up water? 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom In general, what are the basic types of chemical bonds between elements? ionic & covalent bonds A water molecule is held together by what type of bond between hydrogen and oxygen? covalent bonds Water molecules next to each other are held together by what types of bonds? hydrogen bonds Is solid water (i.e. ice) more or less dense than liquid water? Why? ice is less dense than liquid water because once it reaches 3.9 degrees Celsius the Hydrogen bonds can't be squeezed together anymore and instead begin pushing out to form ice crystals What is the definition of salinity? Salinity is the total amount of solid material dissolved in water. aka the measure of electrolytes. typically measure in ppt. (includes gases but excludes dissolved organic substances) How does salinity affect density of water? a higher salinity results in a higher density of seawater What are the ocean’s major salts? the two major salts are Chloride and Sodium. Sulfate, magnesium, calcium, & potassium are also commonly found Where do these salts originate? 1) runoff from streams and rivers
2) they enter through hydrothermal vents in the ocean How does salinity affect the freezing point of water? it lowers it because the increased salt causes the freezing point to drop to a lower temperature What is an acid? a compound that releases hydrogen ions (H+) when it is dissolved in water What is a base? a compound that releases hydroxide ions (OH-) when dissolved in water. What is pH? pH stands for the power of Hydrogen scale. It is a measure of the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution. The scale is from 0-14 with 7 being neutral. Explain the ocean’s buffering system. it is a naturally occurring system which regulates the pH level of the Ocean. It prevents drastic changes in the pH level by fighting it with either carbonic acid or bicarbonate ion What acid is involved in the ocean’s buffering? Carbonic acid – H2CO3 What are the main gases that make up the atmosphere? mostly Nitrogen and Oxygen (also Argon, Water, Carbon Dioxide, & many more) Air flows in which direction, from high pressure to low pressure or from low pressure to high pressure? air always flows from high pressure to low pressure (wind) Which is more dense, warm air or cold air? cold air What is Coriolis Force and what causes it? the Coriolis Force is the fact that objects are deflected because of the rotation of the Earth. in the Northern Hemisphere deflected to the right, Southern deflected to the left Can you use Coriolis Force to explain the direction of spin of a cyclone in the northern hemisphere, in the southern hemisphere? no, it would never cross the Equator to begin with What part of the Earth gets the most direct sunlight all year round? the area between the Tropics, more specifically the Equator and its surrounding areas What causes the seasons? the tilt of the Earth because it affects which portion of the Earth is closer to the suns' rays Why does heat travel from the equator to the poles? jet streams carry it from the high pressure at the poles towards the lower pressure at the equator Can you draw an atmospheric circulation cell on non-rotating Earth? (Hint – it’s a big Hadley cell). wind straight down from poles to equator. four patches on side of rotating counter-clockwise in N. Hemisphere, clockwise in S. Hemisphere Draw atmospheric circulation cells on a rotating Earth or, in other words, how would wind patterns vary between a non-rotating water only Earth and a rotating Earth with land on it? trade winds factored in, smaller circular patterns. flip flop on side of Earth between clockwise and counter-clockwise In what direction do the major current in the northern hemisphere rotate, clockwise or counterclockwise? Why? clockwise..warm rises from equator towards north, cooler heads toward equator (think convection cell here) What causes winds? air flowing from high pressure at the poles towards lower pressure areas near the Equator What is the jet stream? narrow, variable band of very strong, predominantly western air currents encircling the globe miles above the Earth (from book) Be able to draw a low pressure and high pressure cell low pressure system arrows are towards middle, counter-clockwise rotation leads to hurricanes.
high pressure system arrows out, clockwise rotation What is an ocean/sea breeze? an ocean breeze is when breeze from the ocean cools off the land and a sea breeze occurs in the evening as the breeze travels from the land to the ocean. occurs due to the water being able to hold temperature substantially more than land What is Ekman Transport? the net average movement of all water affected by wind. in the Northern Hemisphere it is 90 degrees to the right of motion If wind is blowing on the surface of the ocean in the Northern Hemisphere in a certain direction, which direction will the surface water move? How about the direction of net water movement? surface water will deflect towards the right…net water movement will be 90 degrees to the right What is upwelling? when water gets displace and new deep water replaces it…storm surge in a Hurricane. literally a few feet higher in the middle…hump is created What is downwelling? when water gets displaced and hits land and then bounces back when it sinks Which is more dense, moist air or dry air? Dry air Which is more dense, air at high pressure or low pressure? low pressure the number in the upper left hand side of an element refers to its? number of protons (which also equals # of electrons) the number in the upper right hand side of an element refers to its? atomic mass which dissolve easier, bigger or smaller particles? smaller molecules define density the mass of a substance contained within a unit volume of that substance what is the temperature at which water starts freezing and its hydrogen bonds start pushing out to form crystallization? 3.9 degrees Celsius cations and anions in seawater originate from where? the weathering of continental margins what exactly is it that carbonic acid dissolves which has us worried? calcium carbonate (shells) what is the maximum density of water? 3.9 degrees Celsius how is salinity measured? grams of ions/ kg of seawater what is the average salinity of oceans? 36 ppt salt The oceans pH is supposed to be around an _, however is it now closer to a 7 8 a thin layer of gas uniformly covering the whole Earth! it is a conduit for transport between ocean and land atmosphere absorbs heat, vibrates, re radiates heat greenhouse gases troposphere part of the atmosphere closest to the Earth tropopause barrier/lid/top of troposphere how do you calculate pressure? force/area what causes the fog to cover the coast of California almost everyday? cold water and air combine to bring it over the land….ocean breeze If I was traveling South in the Southern Hemisphere, in which direction would I be deflected by the Coriolis force? to the East (left of the direction of motion, however from our perspective this is to the East) understand this concept!!!**** what causes deep water movement? Thermo-haline circulation: saltier water is more dense and sinks, colder water is more dense and sinks, warmer and less salty water rises. what is surface wind? extra air that doesn't get into the Jet stream and sinks back down to Earth at the equator what is the Coriolis effect? ZERO- there is none!! what is a hurricane called in the southern hemisphere? cyclone Song list Bob Dylan, Pressure Drop by The Toots(Jimmy Cliff), Bob Dylan – Hurricane, Jack Johnson – Drink the Water, Salty Dog Blues,