Final Take home exam

Question Answer
The concept of virulence is a matter of degree of pathology and is often caused by toxins. Invasiveness, in turn, is related to such characteristics as: Capsules, surface proteins,enzymes -more than one of the above
if you saw colonies on blood agar that were clear, Beta hemolytic, and 1mm or less in diameter, what would you suspect? Streptococcus pyogenes
What does the word 'strep' stand for in greek? Twist
What would be least likely to contribute to the pathology in a streptococcal infection? Amylase
Streptococcus hydrolyzes starch because it produces amylase.It hydrolyzes RBC's because it produces: Streptolysin
What genus is most likely to infect a hair follicle? Staphylococcus
Who would be most susceptible to a staph infection? baby boy
Staphylococcus is commonly found in the vagina of females. Under anaerobic conditions some strains produce a toxin that can cause diarrhea, vomiting,fever,shock,and death. It is sometimes accompanied by red skin.This condition is known as: Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS)
Which of the following organisms is coagulase positive and catalase positive? Staphylococcus aureus
One difference between virulent and avirulent Staph is? Coagulase
Which organism causes festering of stitches and splinters? Staph epidermidis
In the Schick test, susceptibility to diphtheria is tested by intradermal injection of minute doses of? Diphtheria antitoxin
What organism is typified as being club shaped rods of 'V' or 'Y' configurations? Corynebacterium
What bacteria did Emil von Behring develop antibody therapy for? Corynebacterium
What genus might share these reservoirs; bongo drum, pig bristle, shaving brush, wool yarn and imported leather hides? Bacillus
Bacillus anthracis is? Zoonoses
Name a pathogenic, aerobic, gram positive rod that is a spore former Bacillus
Hansen's disease is caused by? Mycobacterium
Tuberculosis is an example of a communicable disease which in the US is? an epidemic
A positvie reaction to a TB skin test means that: the patient has been exposed to the bacilli but may or may not become ill
Leprosy is: a problem of 20 million people in the world
What organism produces and endotoxin that is a neurotoxin and a stimulant? C. tetani
How many types of toxins are found in the polyvalent vaccine for botulism? 3
What disease would most likely be lethal? pneumonic plague
Plague is found in cities and in the country; the urban cycle of plague would most likely involve? rats
What is NOT a characteristic of Yersinia pestis? club shaped
Rice water stools are symptomatic for which disease? Vibro Cholera
What organis is a gram -rod,aerobic,non spore former,common shaped, and gives a positive cholera red test? Vibro Cholera
Shigella secretes a toxin that causes smooth muscle to contract. A secondary problem is the same toxin causes contraction of the SM anal sphincter which causes obstruction of defecation. What condition is this? Tenesmus
What is the causative agent (genus) of bacillary dysentery? Shigella
What genus has been implicated with disease from such disparate sources of beef,poultry, rodents, turtles, and eggs? Salmonella
Which disease has a characteristic progressive stair step fever that develops over several days/weeks? Typhoid fever
What symptom is typical of typhoid fever? Rose spots
Salmonella has how many serotypes? 1500
What organism grows best on chocolate agar and enriched carbon dioxide (low oxygen)? Neisseria
Neisseria infects males and females differently. Where is it normally found in males? Urethra
What is one of the most common causes of inflammatory pelvic disease in the US? Neisseria
The word gonos is Greek for? seed
What is the greatest danger of gonorrhea in females? It is asymptomatic; thus leading to non-diagnosis, invasion,complications and spreading of the disease
Which enzyme allows Strep to invade tissue? Hyaluronidase
The diagnostic rash of scarlet fever is due to? Erythrogenic toxin
What organism resists drying the longest? Corynebacterium
Some bacteria only produce exotoxinif they themselves are infected with a virus. An example would be? Corynebacterium
Exotoxins are responsible for the symptoms of all of the following diseases EXCEPT: tuberculosis
Most infectious diseases are the result of complex balances between the caussative agent, the host, and the environment. The disease agent that most exemplifies the ecological nature of disease is? Mycobacterium
Clostridium perfringens causes pathology by producing? A gas
the infant diet of liquid and milk apparently creates an anaerobic environment allowing which genus to grow? Clostridium
Which genus causes conditions that characteristically have a slow recovery (3 weeks or more)? Clostridium
What is a true statement about Clostriduim botulinum? its pathogenicity is due to a toxin rather than the organism itself
Where would you be LEAST likely to find plague? Montreal
Treatment for a disease is often dependent on understanding why it causes damage and then simply intervening to minimize this damage.Cholera is best treated by? fluid replacement
What is the best media to grow cholera organisms? media with an elevated pH
Why do antibiotics not help much in treating cholera? toxin has already bound to cell membrane
What gram negative rod can cause serious life-threatening illness but does not invade tissue? Vibrio cholera
When hot water from industrial complexes are flushed into lakes it raises the temp and promotes rapid bacterial growth and depletes the the lake water of oxygen. Which organism would most likely cause such die-offs? Clostridium