Flashcards for Miss DiVito’s 7th grade end of the year review

Term Definition
Capillary Tiny blood vessels that connect the smallest arteries to the smallest veins exchanging oxygen, metabolic waste products, and carbon dioxide between blood and tissue cells.
Circulatory System The system of organs and structures by which blood and lymph are circulated throughout the body.
Gas Exchange The diffusion of gases from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration, especially the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between and organism and its environment.
Lungs A pair of organs, the principal parts of the respiratory system, at the front of the cavity of the chest in which the lungs transfer oxygen from the air into the blood, while carbon dioxide is removed from the blood and exhaled.
Respiratory System The integrated system of organs involved in the intake and exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the body and the environment including the nasal passages, larynx, trachea, bronchial tubes, and lungs.
Trachea The tube connecting the mouth to the bronchial tubes that carries air to the lungs; also called windpipes.
Artery Any of the blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the body's cells, tissues, and organs.
Blood Pressure The pressure of the blood in the vessels, especially the arteries, as it circulates through the body.
Gene A gene is the set of information that controls a trait; a segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific protein.
Recessive Allele An allele, form of gene, whose trait is masked when a dominant allele is present and working correctly.
Sexual Reproduction A form of reproduction in which a new organism is created by combining the genetic material of two organisms of the same or similar genetic species.
Sperm Cell The "male" sex cell' contains 1/2 the genetic information of the male parent.
Adenine A nitrogen base that pairs with Thymine in DNA and Uracil when found in RNA.
Amino Acid A small molecule that is linked chemically in ribosomes to other amino acids to form proteins.
Cell Cycle The series of events that takes place in a cell leading to its division and duplication.
Chromosomes A double rod of condensed chromatin; contains DNA that carries genetic information.
Cytokinesis The final stage of the cell cycle, in which the cell's cytoplasm divides, disrupting the organelles into each of the 2 new cells and a new cellular membrane forms around each new cell.
Cytosine A nitrogen base that only pairs with Guanine when found in a DNA and RNA.
DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid; the genetic material that carries information about an organism creates proteins and is passed from parent to offspring.
Guanine A nitrogen base that only pairs with Cytosine when found in DNA and RNA.
Interphase The 1st stage of the cell cycle that takes place before cell division occurs.
Mitosis The stage of the cell cycle during which the cell's nucleus divides into two new nuclei and one copy of the DNA is distributed into each daughter cell.
mRNA RNA molecule that copies the coded message from DNA in the nucleus and carries the message to ribosomes in the cytoplasm.
Nitrogen Based Air A nitrogen-containing molecule that are the building blocks of DNA and RNA.
Replication The process by which a cell makes a copy of the DNA in its nucleus.
Thymine A nitrogen base that only pairs with Adenine when found in DNA.
tRNA RNA molecule found in the cytoplasm of the cell that carries amino acids to the ribosomes and add it to the the growing protein chain.
Anaphase The stage of mitosis or meiosis when chromosomes move to opposite poles of the cell. Anaphase accounts for approximately 1% of the cell cycle's duration.
Chromatin Section of DNA that is primarily responsible for compressing and decompressing DNA into chromosome form during the Cell Cycle.
Diploid The number of chromosomes in a non sex cell; typically double those of the gametes or sex cells.
Haploid The number of chromosomes in a sex cells or gamete.
Organelles A specialized part of the cell, it means little organ.
Osmosis Diffusion of water through a membrane. No energy needed. The movement of water from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
Ribosome (Free or Bound) Found in plant/animal cells. Small round structures found on the rough endoplasmic reticulum and floating around in cytoplasm. These are the protein factories of the cell and is where amino acids are combined to make the proteins our bodies need to live.