Flashcards for Miss DiVito’s 7th Grade End of the Year Review

Term Definition
Circulatory System The body system that circulate blood through the body, consisting of the heart, blood vessels, and blood that circulates blood throughout the body. It delivers nutrients and other essential materials to cells, and removes waste products.
Digestive System The structures in the body that work together to transform the energy and materials in food into forms the body can use. It is the system responsible for the ingestion, digestion, and absorption of food.
Excretory System It is the body system that removes excess, unnecessary or dangerous materials from the body. It helps to maintain homeostasis within the organism and prevent damage to the body.
Homeostasis The mechanism which regulates the body's internal condition. The maintenance of a steady body temperature in warm-temperature involves such mechanisms as sweating, shivering, as well as the generation of heat when the internal temperature falls too low.
Reproductive System The system of organs involved with animal and human reproduction, especially sexual reproduction. The reproductive system consists mainly of the ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, and vagina in females and the testes, sperm ducts, and penis in males.
Respiratory System A system that interacts with the environment and with other body systems to bring oxygen to the body and remove carbon dioxide.
Alveoli Any of the air filled sacs arranged in clusters in the lungs , in which the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place.
Bronchi Either of the two main branched of the trachea that lead to the lungs, where they divide into smaller branched
Diaphragm A dome shaped structure made up of muscle and connective tissue that separates the abdominal cavity from the chest and either draws air into the lungs of forces air out of them.
Gas Exchange The diffusion of gases from an area of higher concentration to an area lower concentration, especially the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between an organism and it's environment
Lungs A pair of organs, the principal parts of the respiratory system, at the front of the cavity of the chest in which the lungs transfer oxygen from the air into the blood, while carbon dioxide is removed from the blood and exhaled.
Respiratory System The integrated system of organs involved in the intake and exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the body and the environment including the nasal passages, larynx, trachea, bronchial tubes, and lungs.
Trachea The tube connecting the mouth to the bronchial tubes that carries the air to the lungs; also called the windpipe.
Artery Any of the blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the body's calls, tissues, and organs
Atrium A chamber of the heart that received blood from the veins and forces it by muscular contraction into a ventricle.
Blood Pressure The pressure of the blood in the vessels, especially the arteries, as it circulates through the body.
Gene A set of information that controls a trait; a segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific protein.
Recessive Allele An allele, form of a gene, whose trait is masked when a dominant allele is present and working correctly.
Sexual Reproduction A form of reproduction in which a new organism is created by combining the genetic material of two organisms of the same of similar genetic species.
Sperm Cell The "male" sex cell; contains half the genetic information of the male parent.
Adenine A nitrogen base that pairs with Thymine in DNA and Uracil when found in RNA.
Amino Acid A small molecule that is linked chemically in ribosomes to other amino acids to form proteins.
Cell Cycle The series of events that takes place in a cell leading to its division and duplication.
Chromosome A double rod of condensed chromatin; contains DNA that carries genetic information
Cytokinesis The final stage of the cell cycle, in which the cell's cytoplasm divides, distributing the organelles into each of the 2 new cells and a new cellular membrane forms around each new cell.
Cytosine A nitrogen base that only pairs with Guanine when found in DNA and RNA.
DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid; the genetic material that carried information about an organism; creates proteins and it passed from parent to offspring.
Guanine A nitrogen base that only pairs with Cytosine when found in DNA and RNA.
Interphase The 1st stage of the cell cycle that takes place before cell division occurs.
Mitosis The stage of the cell cycle during which the cell's nucleus divides into 2 new nuclei and 1 copy of the DNA is distributed into each daughter cell.
mRNA RNA molecule that copies the coded message from the DNA in the nucleus and carries the message to ribosomes in the cytoplasm.
Nitrogen base pair A nitrogen-containing molecule that are the building blocks of DNA and RNA.
Replication The process by which a cell makes a copy of the DNA in its nucleus.
Thymine A nitrogen base that only pairs with Adenine when found in DNA.
tRNA RNA molecule found in the cytoplasm of a cell that carries amino acids to the ribosome and adds it to the growing protein chain.
Anaphase The stage of mitosis or meiosis when chromosomes move to opposite poles of the cell.
Chromatin Section of DNA that is primarily responsible for compressing and decompressing DNA into chromosome form during the Cell Cycle.
Chromosome A single piece of coiled DNA containing many genes, regulatory elements and other necleotide sequences, which serve to package the DNA and control its functions.
Diploid The number of chromosomes in a non sex cell; typically double those of gametes or sex cells.
Haploid The number of chromosomes in a sex cell or gametes.