Flashcards for Miss DiVito’s 7th grade end of year review

Term Definition
Meiosis Type of cell division or cell undergone by body cells in order to turn them into sex cells, needed for sexual reproduction. In meiosis, and mitosis and cytokinesis stages of the cell cycle happen twice ending with 4 new cells with 1/2 the genetic material
Metaphase The stage of mitosis in which condensed ; highly coiled chromosomes, carrying genetic information, align in the middle of the cell before being separated into each of the daughter cells. Accounts for approximately 4% of the cell cycle's duration
Mitosis The stage of the cell cycle during which the cell's nucleus divides into 2 new nuclei and one copy of the DNA is distributed into each newly created cell
Prophase The stage of mitosis or meiosis in which the chromatin condenses(it becomes shorter and fatter) into a highly ordered structure called a chromosome in which the chromatin becomes visible
Telophase The stage of mitosis or meiosis when two daughter nuclei form around each pair of chramatids in the new cell. Telophase accounts for approximately 2% of the cell cycle's duration.
Alleles The different forms of a gene
Dominant Allele The form of gene whose characteristics will be displayed if the allele is present.
Genotype The genetic makeup of an organism or group of organisms with reference to a single trait, set of traits, or an entire complex of traits
Phenotype The appearance of an organism resulting from the interaction of the genotype and the environment
Probability The relative possibility that an event will occur, an expressed by the ratio of the number of actual occurrences to the total number of possible outcomes.
Punnett Squares A type of grid that can indicate all the possible outcomes of a genetic cross
Recessive Allele The form of a gene whose characteristics will only be displayed if in the matching copy of the same allele
Biological Inheritance Is the process in which a living organism produces another organism that shares its same traits. This process through subsequent generations results is specific variations and is the cornerstone for evolution. Carries some traits.
Environmental Factors The expression of genes in an organism can be influenced by the environment. External environmental factors can influence the way an organism develops and functions
Genetic Disorder Is caused by abnormalities in genes or chromosomes. A genetic disorder are passed down form the parents' genes, but others are always or almost always caused by new mutations or changes to the DNA
Circulatory System The body system that circulates blood through the body, consisting of the heart, blood vessels. It delivers things the body needs to keep going.
Digestive System The structures that work together to transform the energy into forms the body can use.
Excretory System The body system that removes excess or dangerous materials from the body.
Homoestasis Regulates the body's internal condition. To keep the body healthy and functioning
Reproductive system The system of organs involved with animal and human reproduction, especially sexual reproduction. The reproductive system consists of the ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, and vagina in females and the testes sperm ducts and penis in males.
Respiratory System A system that interacts with the environment and with the other body systems to help bring oxygen to the body and remove carbon dioxide.
Alveoli Any of the tiny air-filled sacs arranged in clusters in the lungs, in which the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide take place.
Bronchi Either of the two main branched of the trachea that lead to the lungs, where they divide into smaller branches.
Diaphragm A dome-shaped structure made up of muscle and connective tissue that separates the abdominal cavity from the chest and either draws air into the lungs or fores air out of them.