Genetics Chapter 17 Human Heredity

Question Answer
Pathogens Disease- causing agents such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites
Skin A barrier, organisms set up conditions unfavorable to pathogens
Innate Broad , against bacteria in general
Adaptive Specificity, memory, vertebrates
Three defenses against infection Skin, inflammation, and the immune response
Complement System A chemical defense system that kills microorganisms directly, supplements the inflammatory response, and works with (complements) the immune system
Membrane Attack Complex Part of complement cascade, invade microorganism's plasma membrane, create pores through which fluids can flow, creating pores that eventually burst the microorganism
Inflammation Redness Pain Heat Swelling, body's reaction to invading microorganisms, nonspecific active defense system
Histamine A chemical signal produced by mast cells that triggers dilation of blood vessels
Genetic predisposition to Crohn disease Chromosome 16, Chronic inflammation, inflammatory bowel disease (like ulcerative colitis)
Immunity Terrific when targeted at bad guy, but bad when targeted at you. REGULATION IS KEY.
Specific responses (Adaptive) Antibody mediated immunity, and Cell mediated immunity
Antibody- mediated immunity Regulated by B cells and antibody production
Cell-mediated immunity Controlled by T cells
Antibodies three main functions 1. Bind to things, Neutralize 2. Opsonize- flag something for a macrophage to eat 3. Kick off complement cascade
Lymphocytes White blood cells that originate in bone marrow and mediate the immune response
Stem Cells Cells in bone marrow that produce lymphocytes by mitotic division
B cell A type of lymphocyte that matures in the bone marrow and mediated antibody- directed immunity, only makes one type of antibody
T cell A type of lymphocyte that undergoes maturation in the thymus and mediates cellular immunity. Programmed in the thymus to produce unique T-cell receptors
Antibodies Y shaped proteins produced by B cells that bind to specific foreign molecules antigens and inactivate them. Secreted by effector cells
Antigens Molecules that initiate antibody production, carried or produced by microorganisms
T- cell receptors Unique proteins on surface of the T cells that bind to specific proteins on the surface of cells infected with viruses, bacteria, or intracellular parasites
Binding to an antigen stimulates B or T cell to divide, producing many clones with the same antibody or TCR – Most polymorphic locus
Major hisocompatability complex Genes on chromosome 6 that encode recognition molecules that prevent the immune system from attacking a body's own organs and tissues.
Antibody- mediated immunity (Humoral) Immune reaction mediated by B cells that protects against invading viruses and bacteria using antibodies produced by plasma cells
Cell- mediated immunity Immune reaction mediated by T cells directed against body cells that have been infected by viruses or bacteria
Helper T cell Stimulates production of antibodies by B cells when an antigen is present. Stimulates division of B cells and cytotoxic T cells
Antigen detection B cells bind to antigens and become antigen presenting cells
Activation of helper T cells Activated helper T cells identify and activate specific B cells
Antibody production by B cells Activated B cells form two types of daughter cells: effector cells and memory B cells
Effector cells Daughter cells of B cells, which synthesize and secrete 2,000 to 20,000 antibody molecules per second into the bloodstream
Memory B cell A long- lived B cell produced after primary exposure to an antigen that plays an important role in secondary immunity
Immunoglobulins Five classes of proteins to which antibodies belong ( IgG IgA IgE IgM IgD)
Cytokines Made by T cells
Suppressor T cells Stop immune responses of B cells, other T cells
Cytotoxic "killer" T cells Secrete perforin to destroy infected body cells, and directly attack viruses, bacteria, cancer cells and transplanted organs