Grade 6

Question Answer
What are the two major ways the Earth moves through space? Rotation and revolution
Why does Earth have seasons? Its axis is tilted as it revolves around the sun
What two factors does the strength of the force of gravity between two objects depend on? Masses of the objects and the distance between them
What did Newton conclude about the two factors-inertia and gravity- combined do? Keep Earth in orbit around the sun and the moon in orbit around Earth
What does the changing relative positions of the moon, Earth, and sun cause? The phases of the moon, eclipses, and tides
What do the phases of the moon you see depend on? How much of the sunlit side of the moon faces Earth
When does an eclipse occur? When the moon's shadow hits Earth or Earth's shadow hits the moon
When does a solar eclipse occur? When the moon passes directly between Earth and the sun, blocking sunlight from Earth
What happens during a lunar eclipse? Earth blocks sunlight from reaching the moon
What causes tides? Tides are caused mainly by differences in how much the moon's gravity pulls on different parts of Earth
What are the features of the moon's surface? Maria, Craters, and Highlands
Compare the moon and the Earth with their sizes and surface gravity Moon is dry and airless. Moon is 1/4 diameter of Earth and 1/80 of Earth's mass. Earth has a stronger gravitational pull because of the difference in mass (Earth=more mass)
What do scientists theorize about how the moon formed? A planet – sized object collided with Earth to form the moon. Then material from the object and Earth's outer layer was ejected into orbit around Earth, where it formed a ring. Gravity then caused the material to combine and form a moon
What are solstices and equinoxes? How are they related to the seasons? They are both changes in the seasons. They are related to the seasons because they mark the beginning of each season
Suppose the moon were closer to Earth. How would the force of gravity between Earth and the moon be different? The force of gravity would increase and be stronger. The tides would be larger too.
How would Earth move if the sun (including gravity) suddenly disappeared? Inertia would cause the Earth to travel in a straight line.
How is a solar eclipse different from a lunar eclipse? Solar: Occurs when the moon passes directly between the Earth and the sun, blocking sun from Earth
Lunar: Earth blocks sun from reaching the moon
What causes the difference in tides? Tides are mainly caused by differences in how much the moon's gravity pulls on different parts of Earth.
Why is the moon's surface more heavily cratered than Earth's surface? Earth's craters have worn away over time by water, wind, and other forces
Why is it less likely to see a total solar eclipse than a total lunar eclipse? The moon's umbra only covers a small area on Earth's surface
What do scientists call the theory on how the moon was formed? Collision – Ring Theory
Lunar Eclipse The blocking of sunlight to the moon that occurs when Earth is directly between the sun and moon
Solar Eclipse The blocking of sunlight to Earth that occurs when the moon is directly between the sun and Earth
Spring Tide The tide with the greatest difference between consecutive low and high tides
Neap Tide The tide with the least distance between consecutive low and high tides
Weight The force of gravity on an object
Mass The amount of matter in an object
Law of Universal Gravitation Newton's law that states that every object in the universe attracts every other object
Tide The periodic rise and fall of the level of water in the ocean
Umbra The very darkest part of the moon's shadow
Astronomy The study of the moon, stars, and other objects in space
Equinox The 2 days of the year on which neither hemisphere is tilted toward or away from the sun
Penumbra The part of a shadow surrounding the darkest part
Eclipse When an object in space comes between the sun and a third object, it casts a shadow on that object
Gravity A force that attracts all objects toward each other
Phases The different shapes of the moon you see from Earth
Calendar A system of organizing time that defines the beginning, length, and divisions of a year
Force A push or a pull
Revolution The movement of one object around another
Newton's First Law of Motion A scientific law that says that an object at rest will stay at rest and an object in motion will stay in motion with a constant speed and direction unless acted on by a force
Rotation The spinning of Earth on its axis
Axis The imaginary line that passes through Earth's center and the north and south poles
Orbit The path of an object as it revolves around another object in space
Inertia The tendency of an object to resist a change in motion
Solstice Each of these days when the sun is farthest north or south of the equator