Hon Bio Chem Test

Question Answer
atom the basic unit of matter
nucleus the center of the atom which contains the protons and the neutrons
electron negatively charged particle; located in the space surrounding the nucleus
proton positively charged particle located in the nucleus
neutron particle with no charge located in the necleus
ionic bond chemical bond formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
covalent bond type of bond between atoms in which electrons are shared
hydrogen bond weak attraction between hydrogen atom and another atom
acid a compound that forms hydrogen ions (H+) in a solution; a solution with a pH less than 7
base a compound that produces hydroxide ions (OH-) in a solution; a solution with a pH more that 7
buffer a compound that prevents a sharp or sudden change in pH
pH scale a scale that values from 0 to 14, used to measure the concentration of H+ (hydrogen) ions in a solution; a pH of 0 to 6 is acidic, a pH of 7 is neutral and a pH of 8 to 14 is basic
Solute a substance that dissolves into a solution
solvent dissolving a substance into a solution
adhension force of attraction between different kinds of molecules
ion particles that have gained or loss electric charge; Lose negative charge becomes more positive; loses positive charge becomes more negative
What are the common ions found in organisms? • Sodium- Na+
• Chloride- Cl-
• Potassium- K+
• Calcium- Ca++
• Hydrogen- H+
Is insulin a macromolecule? YES
Hydrophobic "water fearing"
Hydrophilic "water loving"
What polar is each molecule attracted to: hydrophilic or hydrophobic? nonpolar – hydrophobic
polar – hydrophilic
What is the most important atom in an organism? Carbon
How many bonds can the carbon atom form? 4
What shape do Carbon atoms form? Carbon atoms have rings or chains
Molecules that contain carbon are classified into what type of molecule? Organic molecule
Molecules on the left side of a chemical equation are called . reactants
Molecules on the right side of a chemical equation are called . products
Metabolism all the chemical reactants that happen in a cell
Dehydration Synthesis removing a water molecule to make a bond
Polymerization kind of synthesis reaction in which many smaller subunits that are similar join to make a bigger molecule
Monomers the small subunits in polymerizations
Polymers The big molecule made in polymerizations
Hydrolysis kind of chemical reaction in which a molecule is broken apart by adding
a water molecule
Give an example of a polymer. Nucleotide (GCAT) *join together to make DNA molecule*
What are the functions of enzymes? to speed up chemical reactions by lowering activation energy
What type of organic compound are enzymes? proteins
Carbohydrates are chains of what smaller organic molecule? sugars
What are 3 ways organisms can use carbohydrates? 1. quick energy
2. easy energy
3. structure
What 2 examples of carbohydrates in living organisms 1. sugars
2. starches
Name 3 sugar frutose
What is another name for sugars? sarccharide
How many sugars does monosaccharide have? 1 sugar
How many sugars does polysaccharide have? 3 or more
How many sugars does disacchride have? 2 sugars
Which carbohydrate do plants store for later energy? Strach
Which carbohydrate do animal store for later energy? glycogen
Which carbohydrate makes the cell wall of plants cellulose
Can we digest carbohydrates if not why? NO; it helps things move in intestines
Why do carnivores only eat meat? can't digest cellulose
Are lipid chains smaller molecules than carbohydrates? NO
What are 3 ways that living creatures use lipids? 1. insulate the body
2. energy storage
3. cushion organs
Name 3 examples of lipids in living organisms 1. Fats
2. Oils
3. Waxes
What are 2 ex of saturated fats butter & cheese
What are the general saturated fats solid at room temp. & contributes to heart disease
2 ex. of unsaturated fats plants, fish, or vegetables
List the general characteristics of unsaturated fats liquid at room temp. & better diet choice
Why is cholesterol good and bad? -good cell membrane
-too much creates heart disease
What structure is made up of phospholipids? Cell Membrane
Head: polar
Tail: nonpolar
What are 3 ways living things use proteins? 1. muscles
2. skin, hair, nails, claws
3. episin
What are 3 ex. of proteins in living organisms? 1. hormones
2. movement
3. enzymes
Proteins are chains of what smaller organic molecules? Amino Acids
How many different Amino Acids are there 20
How does proteins function property? Proteins fold and twist into a correct form (3D) Different Shapes = Different Form
What is it called when a proteins unfold? Denature
What are examples of Nucleic Acids? DNA & RNA
What is the function of genetic material? stores and transfers energy
What are the building blocks of nucleic acids? nucleotides
What are the nitrogen bases A C G T U
What are the DNA chains like? -double sided
-double sided helix
-A C G T
What are the RNA chains like? -singled sided
-A C G U
Does DNA have weak bonds or strong bonds? weak bonds between nitrogen bases join the 2 strands
Replication of DNA -copy DNA
-2 strands of DNA helix are complementary
Who found out about DNA Watson, Crick and others