Living vs Non-Living Unit 2

Question Answer
What do all cells contain? they contain all material necessary for life
Define multi-cellular. -many cells
-perform different jobs
Define uni-cellular. -one cell
-cannot perform different jobs
Define stimulus. a change in an organism's environment that affects the activity of the organism
Give 3 examples of a stimulus. gravity, light and sound
Define response. a reaction to a stimulus
Define homeostasis. maintaining a constant internal environment
Give an example of homeostasis. body temperature is 37 degrees Celsius
Define sexual. two organisms produce one offspring that is a combination of the parents
Define asexual. one organism produces genetically identical offspring
How do most single celled organisms reproduce? asexually
Define DNA. -it is the blueprint of life (the blueprint of a cell)
-it gives directions to make protein
Define heredity. the transmission of characteristics from one generation to the next
What is energy necessary for? it is necessary for all of life activities
How is energy acquired? it is acquired from breaking down the food we obtain
Define metabolism. the sum of all chemical activities
What can metabolism do? -it can make food
-it can break down food
-it can make/build cells
Name the 4 stages of complete metamorphosis egg, larva, pupa, adult
Give examples of what goes through complete metamorphosis. frog and butterfly
Name the 3 stages of incomplete metamorphosis. egg, nymph, adult
Give an example of something that goes through incomplete metamorphosis. dragonfly
What does growth mean? an increase in size
What does develop mean? a change in characteristics
What are producers? they produce their own food
Give examples of producers. plants, microorganisms, bacteria
What are consumers? they eat other organisms to obtain food
Give examples of consumers. salamanders, bears, humans
What are decomposers? they obtain food by breaking down nutrients in dead organisms or animal waste
Give examples of decomposers. fungi, worms, bacteria
Approximately how much water are cells of most living things made up of? 70%
What do chemical reactions involved in metabolism require? water
What is a humans survival rate without water? 3 days
What is a desert kangaroos survival rate without water? they never drink water because they get their water from the plants they eat
What gases is air a mixture of? oxygen and carbon dioxide
When do most living things use oxygen? Most living things use oxygen in the chemical process that releases energy from food
Where do land animals get oxygen from? air
How do water organisms get air? they take in dissolved oxygen or go to the surface to obtain it
Which organisms need carbon dioxide and oxygen? green plants, algae, some bacteria
Define photosynthesis. it is the process that converts the energy in sunlight to energy stored in food
Explain competition for space. organisms use different techniques to access necessities
What are 2 things that are specific for every organism? biomes and climate
Explain proteins. -they are involved in all life activities
-they are made up of amino acids
-amino acids from protein in food are
rearranged to make new proteins useful for
the organism
Explain carbohydrates. -they provide the organism with energy
-they are made up of molecules of sugar
-a simple carbohydrate is a short chain
-a complex carbohydrate is a long chain
What is starch? a complex carbohydrate in plants (potato, bread, wheat)
What are lipids? they are fats and oils that store energy
What do phospholipids create? -they create cell membranes
-makes up the cell membrane in 2 layers surrounding the entire cell
What are nucleic acids? -they are the blueprints of life
-they are made up of nucleotides
-they are the recipe to making proteins (Ex: DNA splits in 2 and makes RNA then RNA makes protein)
What is ATP? the major fuel for all life activities (cell activities)-ENERGY
When is ATP obtained? it is obtained when carbohydrates and fats are broken down