Principles of Biomed

Term Definition
Anemia A condition in which the blood is deficient in red blood cells, hemoglobin, or in total volume.
Blood Plasma The pale yellow fluid portion of whole blood that consists of water and its dissolved constituents including, sugars, lipids, metabolic waste products, amino acids, hormones, and vitamins.
Erythrocytes:Red Blood Cells Any of the hemoglobin-containing cells that carry oxygen to the tissues and are responsible for the red color of vertebrate blood.
Hematocrit The percent of the volume of whole blood that is composed of red blood cells. Determined by separating the red blood cells from the plasma.
Leukocytes:White Blood Cells Any of the blood cells that are colorless, lack hemoglobin and contain a nucleus. Leukocytes include the lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils. Fight infections
Sickle Cell Disease Individuals who are homozygous for the gene controlling hemoglobin S. The disease is characterized by the destruction of red blood cells and by episodic blocking of blood vessels by the adherence of sickle cells to the vascular endothelium.
Thrombocytes:Platelets A minute colorless anucleate(lacking a nucleus) disk-like body of mammalian blood that assists in blood clotting by adhering to other platelets and to damaged epithelium.
Allele one of two or more alternative forms of a gene that arise by mutation and are found at the same place on a chromosome that control the same trait.
Autosome any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome.
Dominant Trait An inherited trait that results from the expression of the dominant allele over the recessive allele. a trait that will appear in the offspring if one of the parents contributes it.
Gene a unit of heredity that is transferred from a parent to offspring and is held to determine some characteristic of the offspring.
Genetic Material Those materials found in the nucleus, mitochondria and cytoplasm, which play a fundamental role in determining the structure and nature of cell substances, and capable of self-propagating and variation.
Genotype The genetic makeup, as distinguished from the physical appearance, of an organism or a group of organisms.
Heredity the passing on of physical or mental characteristics genetically from one generation to another.
Homologous Chromosomes A pair of chromosomes having the same gene sequences, each derived from one parent.
Karyotype The characterization of the chromosome complement of a species (such as the shape, type, number, etc. of chromosomes).
Meiosis a type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell, as in the production of gametes and plant spores.
Mitosis a type of cell division that results in two daughter cells each having the same number and kind of chromosomes as the parent nucleus, typical of ordinary tissue growth.
Mutation A permanent, heritable change in the nucleotide sequence in a gene or a chromosome; the process in which such a change occurs in a gene or in a chromosome.
Pedigree A diagram showing the lineage or genealogy of an individual and all the direct ancestors, usually to analyze or follow the inheritance of trait.
Phenotype The expression of a particular trait, for example, skin color, height, behavior, etc., according to the individual’s genetic makeup and environment.
Recessive Trait An inherited trait that is outwardly obvious only when two copies of the gene for that trait are present—as opposed to a dominant trait where one copy of the gene for the dominant trait is sufficient to display the trait.
Sex Chromosome Either of a pair of chromosomes, usually designated X or Y, that combine to determine the sex and sex-linked characteristics of an individual, with XX resulting in a female and XY in a male.
Punnet Square A tool that helps to show all possible allelic combinations of gametes in a cross of parents with known genotypes in order to predict the probability of their offspring possessing certain sets of alleles.