science note cards

Science word Definition
Hypothesis a prediction to a question; something that is tested in an experiment
Conclusion comparing collected data to your hypothesis
Variable the things that change during an experiment
Dependent Variable responding variable; what we see or measure in the experiment to see if it changes
Independent Variable manipulated variable; the variable that is being tested and is changed by the scientist
Controlled Variable constant; things that are kept the same in each trial of the experiment
Graphs make data easier to read and compare
Pie Graph shows percentages; compares parts of the whole
Line Graph shows continuous change; a change of one variable
Bar Graph compares 2 measured varibles
Model a description or representation of something not directly observed;
Limitation of the Model something that is lacking in the model that is present in the real thing; a difference between the model and the real thing
Cell the basic unit of ALL living things
Unicellular organisms made up of only one cell
Multicellular organisms made up of many cells
Similarities between plant and animal cells nucleus, mitochondria, cell membrane
Differences between plant and animal cells plants have cell walls for protection and chloroplasts to carry out photosynthesis
Nucleus the control center of the cell that holds the DNA
Mitochondria breaks down sugar to release energy for the cell
Chloroplasts contains chlorphyll that traps sunlight for photosynthesis
Respiratory system takes in oxygen and releses carbon dioxide
Circulatory System delivers oxygen and nutrients to the body and gets rid of waste
Digestive System breaks down food and given the energy to the body
Excretory system gets rid of wastes from the body
Muscular System relax and contract for movement
Nervous System sends and recieves messeges to the entire body; processess information from the outside environment
Reproductive System creates offspring
Skeletal System provides support for the body
Equilibrium homeostasis; the process of keeping the internal environment stable
Feedback Mechanism the response of an organism to a given change to maintain equilibrium; Ex. Sweating/shivering to maintain body temp., pancreas releasing insulin to maintain sugar levels
Adaptation a genetic trait that helps an organism survive in its environment
Organisms that are adapted to their environment are able to survie and reproduce
Extinction the loss of an entire species
Genes pieces of DNA that carry traits from parents to offspring
Sex cells sperm and egg; carry the genes from parent to the offspring
Sexual reproduction both parents pass of genes to their offspring; half of the offspring's genes come from mom, and half come from dad
Dominant allele if that form of the allele is present, then that trait shows up; written as CAPITAL LETTERS (PP or pp)
Recessive allele gets covered up by the dominant allele; written as lowercase letters (pp)
Punnent Square a table showing all the possible combinations of alleles for a trait in a genetic cross; used to show the probability of getting traits
Ecosystem all the living and nonliving parts of an environment
Habitat the specific place where an organism lives
Biotic the living things in an ecosystem
Abiotic the nonliving things in an environment
Photosynthesis the process that plants use to change energy from sunlight into chemical energy
The sugar produced by photosynthesis provides all of the energy for the ecosystem
Food chain shows how energy passes from one organism to another
Producer organisms that can make their own food
Consumer an organism that must consume something else for energy
Herbavore animals that eat only plants
Carnivore animals that eat only other animals
Omnivores animals that eat both plants and animals
Decomposers feed on dead plants and animals, releases chemical energy and nutrients back into the environment
Food web shows energy tranfer in the entire ecosysytem; overlapping food chains
Succession the rebuilding of populations in a community or ecosysytem that has been changed (after floods, fires, or other natural disasters)
Matter anything that has mass and takes up space
Solid atoms are arranged very orderly; has a definite shape and volume
Liquid atoms are loosely held together; has a definite volume but no definite shape
Gas atoms are very far apart and moving around very quickly; has no definite shape or volume
Atoms the building of all matte; made of protons(+), neutrons(0), and electrons(-)
Element a substance that contains only one type of atom
Moecuole two or more atoms joined together
Periodic table a table of all elements arranged in order of incresing atomic numbers
Groups/families vertical columns of the periodic table; elements in the same family has similar properties
Periods horizontal rows of the periodic table
Parts of an atom Nucleus(protons and neutrons), electron shells
Atomic number number of protons or electrons(in a neutral atom)
Neutral no charge, an atom is neutral when P+=E-
Atomic mass protons+neutrons
Metals most elements on the periodic table;good conductors, shiny, solid, hard, malleable, ductile
Nonmetals on right side of the periodic table; gases and liqids, not good conductors, not shiny,
metalloids in between the metals and nonmetals; has properties of metals and nonmetals
Specific Heat how much energy it takes to raise the tempuratur eof a substance
high specific heat A substance that takes a lot of energy and a long time to heat up
low specific heat a substance that takes very little energy and a short time to heat up
compound a molecule made of two or more different elements
mixtures a combonation of 2 or more pure substances
physical property a physical trait tha can be observed without changing the substance into something else(ex. Boiling point, mass, size, color, density, malleability)
chemical property charicteristics of a substance that are observed when it reacts with another substance(ex. Reactivity, flammability, rust/tarnish)
chemical formula shows the numbers and types of atoms in one molecule of a compound(ex. H2O,CO2)
Chemical Equation shows what happens in a chemical reaction using chemical formulas
reactants on the right side of a chemical equation, shows what goes into the reaction
products on the left side of a chemical equation, shows what comes out of a chemical reaction
balanced chemical equation has the same number of atoms on both sides of the reaction arrow
energy the ability to do work or cause change
chemical energy energy that is stored in the bonds between atoms in molecules
photosynthesis plants convert light energy into chemical energy
electrical energy a flow of electrons(current) through a conductor
energy transformations energy is converted from one form to another
sound waves created by vibration objects; must have a medium to travel through
vacuum a space that has little or no matter
kinetic energy the energy that an object has do to its motion
potential energy stored energy due to an objects position
the more force an object has the ahrder it hits/the faster it goes
force a push or pull that may change motion; measured in Newton's
Motion the change in position of an object
unbalanced force forces are unequal and cause a change in motion
balanced force forces are equal and cause a change in motion
force=mass X Acceleration
friction a force that resists motion