Science Test Vocab and Diagrams 2014

Term Definition
Astronomy Study of moons, stars, and other objects in space
Axis Imaginary line that passes through Earth's center and the North and South poles- 23.5
Rotation Spinning of Earth on its axis- causes day and night- 24 hours
Revolution Movement of one object around another- causes seasons- 365.25 days
Orbit Earth path that it follows as it revolves around the sun
Calendar System of organizing time that defines the beginning, length, and divisions of years
Solstice When the sun is farthest north or south of the equator and happens twice a year
Equinox When the moon is directly overhead the equator and happens twice a year and neither hemisphere is tilted toward or away from the sun
Force Push or pull
Gravity Attracts all objects toward each other
Law of universal gravitation States that every object in the universe attracts every other object
Mass Amount of matter in one object
Weight Force of gravity on an object
Inertia Tendency of an object to resist a change in motion
Newton's first law of inertia An object at rest tends to stay at rest while an object in motion tends to stay in motion
Inertia and gravity Combine to keep Earth in orbit around the sun and the moon in orbit around the Earth
Mass of the object and distance between them Two objects that the strength of the force of gravity between two objects depends on
Axis is tilted as it revolves around the sun Why Earth has seasons
Rotation and revolution Two major ways that Earth moves through space
Summer solstice June 21- northern hemisphere tilted towards sun
Winter solstice December 21- southern hemisphere tilted towards sun
Fall equinox September 21- neither hemisphere tilted towards sun
Spring (vernal) equinox March 21- neither hemisphere tilted towards sun
Fall and spring All hemispheres get equal amount of sun- 12 hours of sun
Elliptical orbit Earth's oval orbit around sun
Phases Different shapes of the moon that you see from Earth
Eclipse When an object in space comes between the sun and a third object, it cast a shadow on that object
Solar eclipse Occurs when a new moon blocks your view of the sun
Umbra Very darkest part of the moons shadow- cone-shaped
Penumbra Large part of the shadow
Lunar eclipse Occurs at a full moon when Earth is directly between the moon and the sun
Tides Rise and fall of of ocean water that occurs very 12.5 hours
Spring tide Combined forces produce a tide with greatest differences between consecutive low and high tides
Neap tide Tide with least amount of difference between consecutive low and high tides
New Moon Sunlit side faces away from Earth-1
Waxing Crescent Portion of the moon you can see is growing into a crescent shape-2
First Quarter Can see half of the sunlit side of the moon-3
Waxing Gibbous Moon continues to grow- visible shape of moon is called gibbous- 4
Full Moon Entire sunlit side faces Earth-5
Waning Gibbous Portion of moon you can see shrinks-6
Third Quarter See half of moons lit side-7
Waning Crescent See a crescent again-8
Phases of the moon New Moon, Waxing Crescent, First Quarter, Waxing Gibbous, Full Moon, Waning Gibbous, Third Quarter, Waning Crescent
Tides are caused By differences in how much the moon's gravity pulls on different parts of the Earth
What solar eclipses are When moon passes directly between Earth and the sun, blocking sunlight from Earth
What lunar eclipses are Earth blocks sunlight from reaching the moon
Telescope Device built to observe distant objects by making them appear closer
Maria Moons surface's dark flat areas- means seas
Craters Large round pits
Meteoroids Chunks of rock or dust from space
The moon formed A planet-sized object collided with Earth