Stack #163577

Question Answer
a non-living part of an ecosystem abiotic factor
the rate at which velocity changes acceleration
a substance that tastes sour, reacts with metals and carbonates, and turns pH paper red acid
a force that is the result os an amount of air pressing on an area air pressure
the friction experienced by objects moving through air air resistance
elements in Group 1 of the periodic table alkali metals
elements in Group 2 of the periodic table alkaline earth metals
a substance made of two or more metals alloy
an underground layer of rock or soil that holds water aquifer
the study of the moon, stars, and other objects in space astronomy
the smallest particle of an element atom
the average weight of one atom of an element atomic mass
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom atomic number
the day of the year that marks the beginning of fall; about September 21 in the N. hemishere autumnal equinox
an imaginary line that runs through the north and south poles of the earth axis
equal forces acting on an object or each other in opposite directions balanced forces
a substance that tastes bitter, feels slippery, and turns pH paper green base
the rule that a stream of fast-moving fluid exerts less pressure than the surrounding fluid Bernoulli's principal
the number of different species in a given area biodiversity
a group of ecosystems with similar climates and organisms biome
a material that starts or increases the rate of a chemica lreaction catalyst
a simple way to show a diagram of an atom of an element. Bohr model
the exact temperature at which a substance changes from a liquid to a gas. (212 F. degrees for water at sea level) boiling point
a temperature in which water freezes at 0 degrees and water boils at 100 degrees Celsius
a force that holds two atoms together chemical bond
a change in matter that produces new substances chemical change
a way to show chemical reactions using symbols instead of word chemical equation
a characteristic that can be observed when a substance interacts with another substance chemical property
behavior pattern that occurs over a period of about one day circadian rythem
all the different organisms that live together in an area community
a substance made of two or more elements chemically copmbined in a set ratio compound
a device that combines two or more simple machines compound machine
the process of learning to connect a stimulas with a good or bad event conditioning
an organism that obtains energy by feeding on another organism concumer
the process of turning soil in a field to follow the curve of a slope to prevent soil loss by water erosion contour plowing
a type of scientific process in which all varialbes are kept the same except one controlled experiment
the gradual wearing away of metal due to a chemical reaction corrosion
a chemical bond formed when two atoms share electrons covalent bond
the facts, figures, and other evidence collected through observation data
to shed leaves and grow new ones each year deciduous
an organism that breaks down large molecules and returns important materials to the environment decomposer
a landform made of sediment that is deposited where a river flows into an ocean or lake delta
the process by which moleclues move from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration diffusion
the process by which sediment settles out of the water or wind that is carrying it and is put in a new area deposition
a ridge of land the separates one drainage basin or watershed from another. divide
a land area from which a river and its tributaries collect their water. drainage basin
a term used to describe a material that can be drawn out into a long wire. ductile
the partial or total blocking of one object by another. eclipse
all the living and nonliving things that interact in an area. ecosystem
a substance that cannot be broken down into any other substance by chemical or physical means. element
needed for work or change to occur. energy
an imaginary line halfway between the North and South poles that circles the Earth. equator
a state in which opposing forces in a system or balanced or stable. equilibrium
a state in which opposing forces in a system or balanced or stable. equilibrium
two days of the year in which neither hemisphere of the earth is tilted toward or away from the sun. (time of day and night or equal…usually March 21 and September 21) equinox
the process by which water, ice, wind, or gravity moves rock or soil. erosion
a habitat in which fresh water of a river meets the salt water of the ocean. estuary
plants or animals that are carried to a new location by wind, water or animals…..opposite of native. exotic species
the disappearance of all members of a species from Earth. extinction
a broad, flat valley through which a river flows. flood plain
a series of events in which one organism eats another starting with a producer and then a consumer on different trophic levels. food chain
a pattern of overlapping food chains in an ecosystem. food web
a push or pull exerted on an object. force
a combination of symbols that shows the ratio of elements in a compound. formula
an energy-rich substance (such as coal, petroleum, or natural gas) formed from the remains of organisms. fossil fuel
the motion of a falling object when the only force acting on it is gravity. free fall
a force that one surface exerts on another when the two rub against each other….heat is created. friction
the fixed point around which a lever pivots. fulcrum
the basic metric unit of measure for measuring mass. gram
the force that pulls objects toward each other…the strength of the force depends on the mass of the objects and the distance between them. gravity
elements in the vertical column of the periodic table; also called a family. group
a large channel in soil or rock formed by erosion. gully
the place where and organism lives and that provides the things the organism needs to survive. habitat
the elements of group 17 of the periodic table. halogen family
an animal that eats only plants. herbivore
a state of greatly reduced body activity that occurs during the winter. hibernation
dark-colored organic material in soil. humus
a possible explanation for a set of observations; usually identified as an “if” and “then” statement; must be testable. hypothesis
the process that splits rock when water seeps into cracks, then freezes and expands. ice wedging (freeze/thaw)
the mechanical advantage that a machine would have without friction of any kind. ideal mechanical advantage (IMA)
a simple machine consisting of flat surface with one end higher than the other. (ex. ramp) inclined plane
he tendency of an object to resist change in movement; the tendency of a moving object to continue to move in a straight line, at the same speed, unless acted on by an outside force; the tendency of a stationary object to not move unless acted on by an ou
an interpretation of an observation based on evidence and prior knowledge; may or may not be factual. inference
the force exerted on a machine. input force (effort force)
a unit of work equal to one Newton-meter. joule
a type of landscape where there is limestone near the surface, characterized by caves, caverns, sinkholes, and valleys. karst
energy that an object has because of its motion. kinetic energy
a device that changes the amount of force exerted or the direction in which force is exerted. machine
a term used to describe material that can be pounded or rolled into shape. malleable
the one factor that a scientist changes during an experiment; also called the independent variable. manipulated variable
a looping curve formed in a river as it winds through its flood plain. meander
the number of times the force exerted on a machine is multiplied by the machine. mechanical advantage
an element that has some of the characteristics of metals and some of the characteristics of nonmetals. (found above and below the zig-zag line on the PT) metalloid
the basic metric unit of measure used for measuring length or distance between two points. meter
two or more substances that are combined together, but do not change chemically. mixture
a combination of two or more atoms that are bonded together. molecule
the product of an object’s mass and velocity. (M=mass X velocity) momentum
species of plant or animal that have naturally evolved in a given area. native species
a tide with the least difference between low and high tide that occurs when the sun and moon pull at right angles to each other. (occurs during 1st and 3rd quarter moon phases) neap tide
the overall force on an object when all the individual forces acting on an object are added together. net force
a unit of measure that equals the force required to accelerate one kilogram of mass at a rate of one meter per second per second. (N=1 kg X m/second/second) newton
an organism’s particular role in an ecosystem. niche
an element in Group 18 of the PT. (also called inert or non-reactive gasses because they do not combine with other elements to make compounds) noble gas
an element that lacks the properties of metals. nonmetal
the central core of an atom that contains protons and usually neutrons; also, the control center of a cell. nucleus
the process of using one or more of the five senses to gather information. observation
an animal that eats both plants and animals. omnivore
the path an object follows as it revolves around another object. orbit
the force exerted on an object by a machine. output force (work force)
a horizontal row of elements in the PT. (these elements have the same number of electron orbit levels) period
an arrangement of the elements in order of atomic number in which elements with similar physical and chemical properties are grouped together. periodic table (PT)
characteristic of some materials such as sand, gravel, and rock that allow liquids to pass easily through them. permeable
a range of values from 0 to 14 that expresses how acidic or alkaline a substance is. pH scale
the process by which plants and other organisms capture light energy and use it to make food from carbon dioxide and water. (CO2 + H20 + light energy = C6H12O6 + O2) photosynthesis
a change that alters the form or appearance of a substance but does not make the material into something different. physical change
the first species to populate an area. pioneer species
energy that is stored and held in readiness. potential energy
a carnivore that hunts and kills other animals for food. predator
making an inference about a future event based on current evidence or past evidence. predicting
the force that something exerts over a given area. pressure
the line that makes a half circle from the North Pole to the South Pole, passing through Greenwich, England. prime meridian
an organism that can make its own food. producer
an object that is thrown projectile
a simple machine consisting of a grooved wheel around which is wrapped a cord, rope, chain, or cable. pulley
a resource that is naturally replaced in a relatively short time. renewable resource
the factor that changes as a result of changes to the manipulative variable in an experiment. responding variable (dependent variable)
the movement of an object around another object. revolution
a large stream. river
the spinning motion of a planet about its axis. rotation
water that flows over the ground surface rather than soaking into the ground. runoff
a study of the natural world through observations, experimentation, and logical reasoning; leads to a body of knowledge. science
a statement that describes what scientists expect to happen every time under a particular set of conditions. scientific law
a well-tested concept that explains a wide range of observations. scientific theory
a simple machine that consists of an inclined plane wrapped around a central cylinder to form a spiral. screw
small, solid particles from rocks or organisms that are moved by gravity, water, or wind; resulting in erosion and deposition. sediment
a thick mass of grass roots and soil. sod
the loose, weathered material on Earth’s surface in which soil plants can grow and other organisms can use as habitat.
a layer of soil that differs in color and texture from the layers above and below it. soil horizon
the blocking of sunlight to Earth that occurs when the moon is between the sun and Earth. (can only occur during a new moon phase) solar eclipse
the two days of the year on which the noon sun is directly overhead at either 23.5 degrees south latitude or 23.5 degrees north latitude. (the longest and shortest amounts of sunlight in any 24 hour period) solstice
a type of mixture in which one or more substances dissolve in a liquid, but do not change chemically. (salt in water) solution
a group of similar organisms whose members can mate with one another and produce fertile offspring. species
a tide with the greatest difference between the high and low tide that occurs when the sun and the moon are aligned with the Earth. (only occurs during a new and full moon phase) spring tide
a calcite deposit that hangs from the roof of a cave. stalactite
a cone-shaped calcite deposit that builds up from the floor of a cave. stalagmite
the layer of soil beneath the topsoil that contains mostly clay and other minerals. subsoil
the series of predictable changes that occur in a community over time. succession
a type of mixture in which particles of sediment can be seen and easily separated by settling or filtering. suspension
the set of letters used to identify an element. symbol
the maximum speed a falling object can achieve. terminal velocity
the daily rise and fall of the Earth’s waters on its shores. tide
the mixture of humus, clay and other minerals that form the crumbly, uppermost layer of soil. topsoil
elements in Groups 3 through 12 of the PT transition metals
a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or river. tributary
a type of water movement in which, rather than moving downstream, the water moves every which way. (rapids) turbulance
the darkest part of a shadow umbra
the electrons that are the farthest away from the nucleus of an atom and that are involved in chemical reactions. valence electrons
factors that can change in an experiment. variable
the day that marks the beginning of spring.
(amounts of daylight and darkness are the same; March 21st in Northern Hemisphere) vernal equinox
the term that refers to the physical and chemical break down of material on the Earth. weathering
a simple machine consisting of a device that is thick at one end and tapers to a thin edge at the other. wedge
a simple machine consisting of two circular or cylindrical objects that are fastened together and rotate about a common axis. wheel and axle
the product of force and distance when a force is used to move an object. (W=F x D) work