VMS Final Exam Study Guide

Question Answer
What is a characteristic of acids? They turn blue litmus paper red.
What is a likely use for a base? Making soaps and detergents
The pH scale measures _____? the concentration of hydrogen ions
Magnesium bromide is an ionic compound with the chemical formula MgBr2. What does the "2" tell you? There are two bromide ions for every magnesium ion.
When an atom loses an electron, it becomes _____? a positive ion
An ionic bond is the attraction between ______. Oppositely charged ions.
A chemical bond formed when two atoms share electrons is called a(n) ____ bond. covalent bond
Electrons involved in bonding between atoms are ______ electrons. valence electrons
What are the products of photosynthesis? oxygen and sugars
What happens during photosynthesis? the cell uses the energy in sunlight to make food
What happens during cellular respiration? glucose is broken down, releasing energy
The stage of respiration that releases most of the energy in glucose occurs in the _______. Mitochondria
Each rung of the DNA ladder is made of ___. a single pair of nitrogen bases.
Which of the following best describes the function of mitochondria? they convert energy from food molecules into energy the cell can use.
How does a bacterial cell differ from a plant or animal cell? it does not have a nucleus.
Which organelles release chemicals that break down large food particles into smaller ones? Lysosomes
Sugar molecules can combine with one another to form large molecules called___. Starches
A substance that cannot be broken down into simpler elements is a(n) _____. Element
When two or more elements combine chemically, they form a(n) _____. Compound
Chemistry is ____________________. the study of matter and how matter changes.
What type of reaction is FeS + 2HCl -> FeCl2 + H2S? Double replacement reaction
In chemical reactions, what does the principle of conservation of mass mean? Matter is not created nor destroyed.
A bottle of hydrogen peroxide that eventually turns into a bottle of water and oxygen gas is an example of ______. a decomposition reaction
How can you determine if a chemical reaction is balanced? If the total number of atoms of each element is the same on both sides of the equation, it is balanced.
A chemical reaction that absorbs energy in the form of heat is described as _____. Endothermic
In a chemical equation, numbers often appear in front of a chemical formula. These numbers tell you the ______. number of molecules or atoms of each substance in the reaction.
The number placed below an element's symbol in a chemical formula is called a ______. Subscript
Stress that pushes a mass of rock in two opposite directions is called ____. Shearing
The type of seismic waves that arrive at the surface first and move by compressing and expanding the ground like an accordion are called _____. P waves
The build-up of charges on an object is called _______. Static electricity
An electric current will always follow ____. the path of least resistance.
In a series circuit with three bulbs, adding another will _____. make all the bulbs dimmer.
Factors that control traits are called ______. genes
Scientists call an organism that has two different alleles for a trait a ______. Hybrid
What does the notation TT mean to geneticists? two dominant alleles
What does the notation Tt mean to geneticists? one dominant allele and one recessive allele
What is the probability of producing a tall pea plant from a genetic cross between two hybrid tall pea plants? three in four
What does a Punnett square show? all the possible outcomes of a genetic cross
An organism's physical appearance is its____. Phenotype
What happens during meiosis? Chromosome pairs separate and are distributed into new sex cells.
When sex cells combine to produce offspring, each cell will contribute ____. half the number of chromosomes in body cells.
The order of the bases along a gene determines the order in which______. amino acids are put together to form a protein.
What does messenger RNA do during protein synthesis? Copies the coded message from the DNA and carries it into the cytoplasm.
What does transfer RNA molecules do during protein synthesis? Carry amino acids and add them to the growing protein.
Which combination of sex chromosomes results in a male human being? XY
Creating human insulin to treat people with diabetes is an example of _____. Genetic engineering
Speed equals distance divided by ____. Time
The rate at which velocity changes is called _____. Acceleration
A place or object used for comparison to determine if something is in motion is called a _____. Reference point
The genetic material of a virus is found in its ______. Core
A virus's proteins are important because they _______. help the virus attach to its host.
What characteristic of viruses makes them useful in gene therapy? Their ability to enter cells
Which shape describes some bacterial cells? Spiral
Which of the following is found in the cytoplasm of bacterial cells? Genetic material
Viruses are considered to be non-living because they ______. do not show all the characteristics of life.
A hidden virus becomes ______. part of the host cell's genetic material.
Cells that have a central nucleus and a complicated inner structure are considered ____. Eukaryotic
Cells that do not have a cell nucleus are considered ____. Prokaryotic
What part of the cell transports materials throughout the cell? Endoplasmic Reticulum
The many overlapping food chains in an ecosystem make up a(n) _______. Food web
A diagram that shows the amount of energy that moves from one feeding level to another in a food web is called a(n) ______. Energy pyramid
In an energy pyramid, which level has the most available energy? Producer level
A group of land ecosystems with similar climates and organisms is called a(n) ______. Biome
An organism that can make its own food is called a ______. Producer/autotroph
The place where an organism lives and that provides the things an organism needs is called its ______. Habitat
The smallest unit of ecological organization is a single _______. Organism
An organism's particular role in its habitat, or how it makes its living, is called its ____. Niche
A close relationship between two species that benefits at least one of the species is called ___. Symbiosis
The non-living parts of an ecosystem are called _______ factors. Abiotic
All the different populations that live together in an area make up a(n) _____. Community
The study of how things interact with each other and with their environment is called ____. Ecology
The levels of organization for living things from smallest to largest :______. Cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism