*WAHS TAKS Science: Earth & Elements

Question Answer
Matter states of energy on earth, including solid, liquid, and gas
Fluids matter that flows, takes the shape of its container
Viscosity a fluid’s resistance to flow; high
Buoyancy the ability of a fluid to exert an upward force on an object immersed in it
Density the mass per unit volume; depends on temperature, warmer
Permeability the rate of flow of a liquid or gas through a porous material
Infiltration (water) the process of water entering the soil
Pressure force exerted per unit area; related to particles and their motion; warmer means more pressure
Mass the amount of matter in an object
Volume the amount of space occupied by an object
Polarity the imbalance of charges in a molecule
Ions a charged particle with an imbalance between electrons and protons
Base a substance that forms hydroxide ions in a water solution; slippery, cleansers
Acid a substance that produces hydrogen ions in a water solution; sour, corrosive
Acidity how well or poorly a compound ionizes (separates into ions) when dissolved in water
Element pure chemical substances
Bonding when elements share electrons to form compounds
Compounds when two or more elements combine chemically
Mixtures material made up of two or more pure substances
Single-Displacement Reaction when an element or ion moves out of one compound and into another
Ion Concentration the number of ions present when an ionic compound dissolves in water, it dissociates, and ions form
pH levels the measure of hydronium ions in a solution, from 0 – 14, with 0 being highly acidic, and 14 being highly basic
Electrolytic Behavior compounds that break down into ions in water, and can conduct electricity
Chemical Stability a complete outer level of electrons (two or eight/octet)
Valence outer layer of electrons, determines chemical properties of an atom
Covalence the ability of an element to bond with other elements by sharing electrons across a bond
Electron Configuration the arrangement of electrons around a proton/neutron nucleus
Periodic Table list of chemical elements; based on patterns of atomic mass
Periodic Table – First column mainly soft metals that react readily with other elements
Periodic Table – Last Column gases that do NOT react readily with other elements
Physical Changes the identity of the material does not change, only the state/form does
Chemical Changes the identity of the material does change chemically; such as energy change, color or odor change, or released gas
Chemical Equations substances going into a reaction (reactants) must equal/balance substances produced by the reaction (products)
Balanced Coefficient Ratio the numbers written BEFORE the elements in a chemical equation; both sides need to be balanced in element quantity
Phase Changes of Matter solids, liquids, and gases
Water as Universal Solvent it dissolves more materials than most other solvents due to polarity (molecule charge imbalance)
Reactivity chemical reactions occurring when particle collisions take place
Nature of Solute and Solvent the sat_flash_1 of molecules that determine how they dissolve
Solubility the amount of solute at a specific temperature and pressure
Solute the substance that is dissolved in another substance
Rock Cycle Stages the 3 phases of rock formation (Igneous, Metamorphic, Sedimentary)
Igneous rocks formed mainly by heat
Metamorphic rocks formed mainly by pressure
Sedimentary rocks formed mainly by deposits and erosion